Municipal solid waste generation in mature destinations: An IPAT-type model for Mallorca


  • Italo Arbulú Universidad de las Islas Baleares
  • Javier Lozano Universidad de las Islas Baleares
  • Javier Rey-Maquieira Universidad de las Islas Baleares



IPAT Model, Municipal solid waste, Tourism growth


Several studies examined the relationship between environmental degradation and population growth. However, most of them don’t take into account the difference between local population and tourist arrivals. This paper contributes to the literature by separating these two groups within the framework of IPAT-based models to measure the impact of tourist arrivals in terms of municipal solid waste generation for Mallorca. The model leads to a stochastic differential equations system, which showed that this mature tourist destinations have higher population elasticity than industrial economies. Moreover, the model allowed us to measure the elasticity of substitution between lower-income and higher-income tourists.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Italo Arbulú, Universidad de las Islas Baleares

Departamento de Economía Aplicada

Javier Lozano, Universidad de las Islas Baleares

Departamento de Economía Aplicada

Javier Rey-Maquieira, Universidad de las Islas Baleares

Departamento de Economía Aplicada


Abrate, G. and Ferraris, M. (2010). “The environmental Kuznets curve in the municipal solid waste sector”. HERMES Working Paper, 01.

Agarwal, S. (1997). “The resort cycle and seaside tourism: An assessment of its applicability and validity”. Tourism Management, 18(2): 65-73.

Aguiló, E. and Juaneda, C. (2000). “Tourist expenditure for mass tourism markets”. Annals of Tourism Research, 27(3): 624-637.

Aguiló, E., Alegre, J. and Sard, M. (2005). “The persistence of the sun and sand tourism model”. Tourism Management, 26: 219-231.

Alegre, J. and Cladera, M. (2006). “Repeat visitation in mature sun and sand holiday destinations”. Journal of Travel Research, 44(2): 288-297.

Alfranca, O. (2009). “Regulación ambiental e innovación”. Clm. Economía, 15: 33-50.

Archer, B. (1976). “The anatomy of multiplier”. Regional Studies, 10: 71-77.

Archer, B. (1982). “The value of multipliers and their policy implications”. Tourism Management, 3(2): 236-241.

Archer, B. and Fletcher, J.E. (1988). “The tourist multiplier”. Teoros, 7(3): 6-9.

Archer, B. (1996). “Sustainable tourism: An economist’s viewpoint”. In Briguglio, L., Archer, B., Jafari, J. and Wall, G. (Eds.): Sustainable tourism in islands and small states. Pinter, London.

Ayres, R.U. and Kneese, A.V. (1968). Environmental pollution. Federal Programs for the Development of Human Resources, Washington D.C.

Bardolet, E. and Sheldon, J. (2008). “Tourism in archipelagos: Hawai’i and the Balearics”. Annals of Tourism Research, 35(4): 900-923.

Blasco, A. (1996). Legislació d’ordenación del territori i urbanisme de les Illes Balears. Universitat de les Illes Balears, Palma de Mallorca.

Blasco, A. and Segura, F. (1994). Legislació turística estatal i balear. Universitat de les Illes Balears y Federación Empresarial Hotelera de Mallorca, Palma de Mallorca.

Boulding, K. (1966). “The Economics of the coming spaceship Earth”. In Jarrett, H. (Ed.): Environmental Quality in a growing economy. Essays from the Sixth RFF Forum. Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore.

Bramwell, B. (2004). “Mass tourism, diversification and sustainability in Southern Europe’s coastal regions”. In Bramwell, B. (Ed.): Coastal mass tourism. Channel View Publication, Clevedon (UK).

Briassoulis, H. and van der Straaten, J. (1992). Tourism and the environment. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.

Butler, R. (1980). “The concept of a tourist area cycle of evolution: Implications for the management of resources”. Canadian Geographer, 24(1): 5-12.

Butler, R. (1993). “Tourism development in small islands: Past influences and future directions”. In Lockhart, D., Drakakis-Smith, D. and Schembri, J. (Eds.): The development process in small islands. Routledge, London.

Commoner, B. (1972). The environmental cost of economic development: Population, resources and the environment. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

Cooper, C. (1990). “Il ciclo di vita delle localitá turistiche”. Politica del Turismo, 5: 68-73.

Cooper, C. (2002). “Sustainability and tourism visions”. Paper presented at the VII Congreso Internacional del CLAD sobre la Reforma del Estado y de la Administración Pública, Lisboa.

Cropper, M. and Griffiths, C. (1994). “The interaction of population growth and environmental quality”. American Economic Review, 84(2): 250-254.

Dietz, T. and Rosa, E. (1994). “Rethinking the environmental impacts of population affluence and technology”. Human Ecology Review, 1: 277-300.

Dietz, T. and Rosa, E. (1997). “Effects of population and affluence on CO2-emissions”. Protocol of the National Academy of Science, 94(1): 175-179.

Dietz, T., Rosa, E. and York, R. (2007). “Driving the human ecological footprint”. Frontiers of Human Ecology, 5(1): 13-18.

Ehrlich, P. and Holdren, J. (1971). “Impact of population growth”. Science, 171: 1212-1217.

Filho, W. (1996). “Putting principles into practices: Sustainable tourism in small island states”. In Briguglio, L., Archer, B., Jafari, J. and Wall, G. (Eds.): Sustainable tourism in islands and small States: Issues and policies. Pinter, London.

Fischer-Kowalski, M. and Amann, C. (2001). “Beyond IPAT and Kuznets Curves: Globalization as a vital factor in analyzing the environmental impact of socio-economic metabolism”. Population and Environment, 23(1): 7-47.

Fletcher, J.E. and Archer, B. (1991). “The development and application of multiplier analysis”. In Cooper, C.P. (Ed.): Progress in tourism, recreation and hospitality management, Vol. 3. Belhaven, London.

Gans, O. and Jöst, F. (2005). Decomposing the impact of population growth on environmental deterioration: Some critical comments on a widespread method in ecological economics. Discussion Paper Series No. 422. University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg.

Garín-Muñoz, T. and Montero-Martín, L.F. (2007). “Tourism in the Balearic Islands: A dynamic model for International demand using panel data”. Tourism Management, 28: 1224-1235.

Gidarakos, E., Havas, G. and Ntzamilis, P. (2006). “Municipal solid waste composition determination supporting the integrated solid waste management system in the island of Crete”. Waste Management, 26(6): 668-679.

Gossling, S. (2003). Tourism and development in tropical islands: Political ecology perspectives. Elgar, London.

Greene, W. (2002). Econometric analysis. Pearson Education, New York.

Guthunz, U. and von Krosigk F. (1996). “Tourism development in small islands states: from Mirab to Tourab”. In Briguglio, L., Archer, B., Jafari, J. and Wall, G. (Eds.): Sustainable tourism in islands and small states: Issues and policies. Pinter, London.

Hampton, M. and Christensen, J. (2007). “Competing industries in islands: A new tourism approach”. Annals of Tourism Research, 34(4): 998-1020.

Hitchens, D., Birnie, E., Thompson, W., Triebswetter, U., Bertossi, P. and Messori, L. (2000). Environmental regulation and competitive advantage: a study of packaging waste in the European supply chain. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, Glos (UK).

Jöst, F. and Quaas, M. (2006). Environmental and population externalities. Discussion Paper Series No. 427.University of Heidelberg, Heildelberg.

Jaffre, A. and Palmer, K. (1997). “Environmental regulation and innovation: A panel data study”. Review of Economics and Statistics, 79(4): 610-619.

Knight, K.W. (2008). The Ecological Implications of Population Aging. M.A. Thesis, Department of Sociology, Washington State University, Pullman (WA).

Knight, K.W. (2009). “Structural Human Ecology and STIRPAT: Theory and Method”. Panel Contribution to the Population-Environment Research Network’s Cyber seminar on Theoretical and Methodological Issues in the Analysis of Population

Dynamics and the Environment.

Knowles, T. and Curtis, S. (1999). “The market viability of European mass tourist destinations. A post-stagnation life-cycle analysis”. International Journal of Tourism Research, 1(2): 87-96.

Ku, S., Yoo, S. and Kwak, S. (2009). “Willingness to pay for improving the residential waste disposal system in Korea: A choice experiment study”. Environmental Management, 44(2): 278-287.

Lin, S., Zhao, D. and Marinova, D. (2009). “Analysis of the environmental impact of China based on STIRPAT model”. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 29(6): 341-347.

Liu, J. and Var, T. (1986). “Resident attitudes to tourism impacts in Hawaii”. Annals of Tourism Research, 13(2): 193-214.

Malthus, T.R. (1798). Essay on the principle of population, 7th Ed. (1967). Dent, London.

Mathieson, A. and Wall, G. (1982). Tourism: Economic, physical and social impacts. Longman, London.

Meadows, D.H., Meadows, D.L. and Randers, J. (1972). The limits to growth. Universe Books, New York.

Montero, I. and Oreja, J.R. (2005). “La disponibilidad de los recursos tangibles de la oferta de productos de turismo cultural en las Islas Canarias. Aplicación del modelo probabilístico de RASCH”. Cuadernos de Turismo, 16: 135-151.

Myers, N. (1993). “Population, environment and development”. Environmental Conservation, 20(3): 205-216.

Nicolli, F., Mazzanti, M. and Montini, A. (2010). Waste generation and landfill diversion dynamics: Decentralized management and spatial effects. Working Papers, 417, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei, Milan.

Palmer, T. and Riera, A. (2003). “Tourism and environmental taxes: With special reference to the ‘Balearic ecotax’”. Tourism Management, 24(6): 665-674.

Poon, A. (1993). Tourism, technology and competitive strategies. CAB International, Wallingford.

Priestley, G. and Mundet, L. (1998). “The post-stagnation phase of the resort cycle”. Annals of Tourism Research, 25(1): 85-111.

Radwan, H., Jones, E. and Minoli, D. (2010). “Managing solid waste in small hotels”. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 18(2): 175-190.

Rey-Maquieira, J., Lozano, J. and Gómez, C.M. (2005). “Land, environmental externalities and tourism development”. In Lanza, A., Markandya, A. and Pigliaru, F. (Eds.): The economics of tourism and sustainable development. Series on Economics and the Environment. The Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei, Milano.

Saleem, N. (1996). “A strategy for sustainable tourism in Sri Lanka”. In Briguglio, L., Butler, R., Harrison, D. and Filho, W. (Eds.): Sustainable tourism in islands and small states: Case studies. Pinter, New York.

Scholz, S. (2006). “The POETICs of industrial carbon dioxide emissions in Japan: An urban and institutional extension of the IPAT identity”. Carbon Balance and Management, 1:1(11).

Schulze, P.C. (2002). “I=PBAT”. Ecological Economics, 40(2): 149-150.

Sheldon, P., Knox, J. and Lowry, K. (2005). “Sustainability in a Mature Mass-tourism Destination: The Case of Hawaii”. Tourism Review International, 9(1): 47-60.

Shi, A. (2003). “The impact of population pressure on global carbon dioxide emissions, 1975-1996: evidence from pooled cross-country data”. Ecological Economics, 44(1): 29-42.

Simon, J.L. (1981). The ultimate resource. Princeton University Press, Princeton (NJ).

Stern, D. (2004). “Economic growth and environmental degradation: The environmental Kuznets curve and sustainable development”. World Development, 24(7): 1151-1160.

TIRME S.A. (2010). Memoria anual 2010.

UN, United Nation. (2001). Sustainable development of tourism. Report of the Secretary-General. Document No. E/CN.17/2001/ PC/21. New York.

Urry, T. (1995). Consuming places. Routledge, London.

Vanhove, N. (2005). The economics of tourism destinations. Elsevier, Butterworth-Heineman.

Vera, J.F. (1992). “La dimensión ambiental de la planificación turística: Una nueva cultura para el consumo turístico”. Papeles de Geografía, 18: 195-204.

Vera, J.F and Baños, C. (2010). “Renovación y reestructuración de los destinos turísticos consolidados del litoral: Las prácticas recreativas en la evolución del espacio turístico”. Boletín de la Asociación de Geógrafos Españoles, 53: 329-353.

Wilkinson, P. (1997). Tourism policy and planning: Case studies from the Commonwealth Caribbean. Cognizant Communications, New York.

Wilson, D. (1996). “Glimpses of Caribbean tourism and the question of sustainability in Barbados and St. Lucia”. In Briguglio, L., Butler, R., Harrison, D. and Filho, W. (Eds.): Sustainable tourism in islands and small states: Case studies. Pinter, New York.

WTO, World Tourism Organization (1999). Sustainable development of tourism: An annotated bibliography. WTO, Madrid.

WTO, World Tourism Organization (2001). Yearbook of tourism statistics 1995-1999. WTO, Madrid.

York, R., Dietz, T. and Rosa, E. (2002). “Bridging environmental science with environmental policy: Plasticity of population, affluence, and technology”, Social Science Quarterly, 83(1): 18-34.

York, R., Rosa, E. and Dietz, T. (2003). “STIRPAT, IPAT and ImPACT: Analytical tools for unpacking the driving forces of environmental impacts”, Ecological Economics, 46(3): 351-365.

Zagheni, E. and Billari, F. (2007). “A cost valuation model based on a stochastic representation of the IPAT equation”. Population and Environment, 29(2): 68-82.