What we know and do not know about organizational resilience
Keywords:antifragility, resilience, robustness, organizational resilience, conceptualization, assessment
AbstractWe present a literature review about organizational resilience, with the goal of identifying how organizational resilience is conceptualized and assessed. The two research questions that drive the review are: (1) how is organizational resilience conceptualized? and (2) how is organizational resilience assessed? We answer the first question by analysing organizational resilience definitions and the attributes or characteristics that contribute to develop resilient organizations. We answer the second question by reviewing articles that focus on tools or methods to measure organizational resilience. Although there are three different ways to define organizational resilience, we found common ideas in the definitions. We also found that organizational resilience is considered a property, ability or capability that can be improved over time. However, we did not find consensus about the elements that contribute to improving the level of organizational resilience and how to assess it. Based on the results of the review, we propose a conceptualization of organizational resilience that integrates the three views found in the literature. We also propose a four-level Maturity Model for Organizational Resilience – MMOR. Using this model, the organization can be in one of the following levels based on its ability and capacity to handle disruptive events: fragile, robust, resilient or antifragile.
Acquaah, M., Amoako-Gyampah, K., Jayaram, J. (2011). Resilience in family and nonfamily firms: An examination of the relationships between manufacturing strategy, competitive strategy and firm performance. International Journal of Production Research, 49(18), 5527-5544. https://doi.org/10.1080/00207543.2011.563834
Afgan, N. H. (2010). Resilience of company management system. In PICMET ’10 - Portland International Center for Management of Engineering and Technology, Proceedings - Technology Management for Global Economic Growth (pp. 1–8).
Aguirre, B. E., Dynes, R. ., Kendra, J., Connell, R. (2005). Institutional resiliance and disaster planning for new hazards: Insights from hospitals. Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management, 2(2), 1547-7355. https://doi.org/10.2202/1547-7355.1113
Alblas, A., Jayaram, J. (2015). Design resilience in the fuzzy front end (FFE) context: An empirical examination. International Journal of Production Research, 53(22), 6820–6838. https://doi.org/10.1080/00207543.2014.899718
Aleksic, A., Stefanović, M., Arsovski, S., Tadić, D. (2013). An assessment of organizational resilience potential in SMEs of the process industry, a fuzzy approach. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 26(6), 1238–1245. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jlp.2013.06.004
Alexiou, A. (2014). Taming the waves of adversity: Exploring the multidimensional construct of organizational resilience. In Assimakopoulos, D. G., Oshri, I., Pandza, K. (Eds.). Managing Emerging Technologies for Socio-Economic Impact. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing. https://doi.org/10.4337/9781782547884.00026
Alonso, A. D., Bressan, A. (2015). Resilience in the context of italian micro and small wineries: An empirical study. International Journal of Wine Business Research, 27(1), 40–60. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJWBR-08-2014-0035
Ambulkar, S., Blackhurst, J., Grawe, S. (2015). Firm’s resilience to supply chain disruptions: Scale development and empirical examination. Journal of Operations Management, 33–34, 111–122. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jom.2014.11.002
Annarelli, A., Nonino, F. (2016). Strategic and operational management of organizational resilience: Current state of research and future directions. Omega, 62, 1–18. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.omega.2015.08.004
Apneseth, K., Wahl, A., Hollnagel, E. (2013). Measuring resilience in integrated planning. In Albrechtsen, E & Besnard, D (Eds.) Oil and Gas, Technology and Humans: Assessing the Human Factors of Technological Change. Boca Raton, FL: CRC press.
Asgary, A., Kong, A., Levy, J. (2009). Fuzzy-Jess expert system for indexing business resiliency. In TIC-STH’09: 2009 IEEE Toronto International Conference - Science and Technology for Humanity, 153-158. https://doi.org/10.1109/TIC-STH.2009.5444516
Ates, A., Bititci, U. (2011). Change process: A key enabler for building resilient SMEs. International Journal of Production Research, 49(18), 5601–5618. https://doi.org/10.1080/00207543.2011.563825
Bauernhansl, T., Mandel, J., Diermann, S. (2012). Evaluating changeability corridors for sustainable business resilience. In Procedia CIRP (Vol. 3, pp. 364–369). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procir.2012.07.063
Beer, S. (1989). The viable system model: its provenance, development, methodology and pathology. In R. Espejo & R. Harnden (Eds.), The Viable System Model, Interpretations and Applications of Stafford Beer’s VSM. Chichester: Wiley. https://doi.org/10.1057/jors.1984.2
Beermann, M. (2011). Linking corporate climate adaptation strategies with resilience thinking. Journal of Cleaner Production, 19(8), 836–842. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2010.10.017
Bell, M. (2002). The five principles of organizational resilience. Gartner Research.[Online], 2–4.
Bergström, J., van Winsen, R., Henriqson, E. (2015). On the rationale of resilience in the domain of safety: A literature review. Reliability Engineering & System Safety, 141, 131–141. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ress.2015.03.008
Berman, E. (2009). Small Business Resilience. Industrial Management, 51(1), 6.
Bhamidipaty, A., Lotlikar, R., Banavar, G. (2007). RMI: a framework for modeling and evaluating the resiliency maturity of IT service organizations. In IEEE International Conference on Services Computing (SCC 2007), 300–307. Salt Lake City, UT. https://doi.org/10.1109/SCC.2007.94
Bhamra, R., Burnard, K., Dani, S. (2015). Resilence. The Concept, a Literature Review and Future Directions. In R. Bhamra (Ed.), Organizational Resilience. Concepts, Integration and Practice, 3–29. CRC Press. https://doi.org/10.1201/b19305-3
Bhamra, R., Dani, S., Burnard, K. (2011). Resilience: the concept, a literature review and future directions. International Journal of Production Research, 49(18), 5375–5393. https://doi.org/10.1080/00207543.2011.563826
Biggs, D., Hall, C. M., Stoeckl, N. (2012). The resilience of formal and informal tourism enterprises to disasters: Reef tourism in Phuket, Thailand. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 20(5), 645–665. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2011.630080
Boza, A., Poler, R. (2013). Enhancing enterprise resilience through enterprise collaboration. In IFAC Proceedings Volumes (IFAC-PapersOnline), 688–693. https://doi.org/10.3182/20130619-3-RU-3018.00283
Braes, B., Brooks, D. (2010). Organisational resilience: a propositional study to understand and identify the essential concepts. Proceedings 3rd Australian Security and Intelligence Conference, (November), 14–22. https://doi.org/10.4225/75/579ec432099ca
Braes, B., Brooks, D. (2011). Organisational Resilience: Understanding and identifying the essential concepts. In Safety and Security Engineering IV, 117. WIT Press. https://doi.org/10.2495/SAFE110111
Brewton, K. E., Danes, S. M., Stafford, K., Haynes, G. W. (2010). Determinants of rural and urban family firm resilience. Journal of Family Business Strategy, 1(3), 155–166. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfbs.2010.08.003
Bruneau, M., Chang, S. E., Eguchi, R. T., Lee, G. C., O’Rourke, T. D., Reinhorn, A. M., Shinozuka, M., Tierney, K., Wallace, W. A., von Winterfeldt, D. (2003). A framework to quantitatively assess and enhance the seismic resilience of communities. Earthquake Spectra, 19(4), 733–752. https://doi.org/10.1193/1.1623497
Burnard, K., Bhamra, R. (2011). Organisational resilience: development of a conceptual framework for organisational responses. International Journal of Production Research, 49(18), 5581–5599. https://doi.org/10.1080/00207543.2011.563827
Caralli, R. A., Curtis, P. D., Allen, J. H., White, D. W., Young, L. R. (2010). Improving operational resilience processes: The CERT® resilience management model. Proceedings - SocialCom 2010: 2nd IEEE International Conference on Social Computing, PASSAT 2010: 2nd IEEE International Conference on Privacy, Security, Risk and Trust, 1165–1170. https://doi.org/10.1109/SocialCom.2010.173
Chadegani, A. A., Salehi, H., Yunus, M. M., Farhadi, H., Fooladi, M., Farhadi, M., Ebrahim, N. A. (2013). A Comparison between Two Main Academic Literature Collections: Web of Science and Scopus Databases. Asian Social Science, 9(5), 18–26. https://doi.org/10.5539/ass.v9n5p18
Chand, A. M., Loosemore, M. (2016). Hospital learning from extreme weather events: using causal loop diagrams. Building Research and Information, 44(8), 875-888. https://doi.org/10.1080/09613218.2016.1097805
Chopra, S. S., Khanna, V. (2014). Understanding resilience in industrial symbiosis networks: Insights from network analysis. Journal of Environmental Management, 141(April 2014), 86–94. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2013.12.038
Coutu, D. L. (2002). How resilience works. Harvard Business Review, 80(5), 46–56.
Crichton, M. T., Ramsay, C., Kelly, T. (2009). Enhancing organizational resilience through emergency planning: Learnings from cross-sectoral lessons. Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, 17(1), 24–37. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-5973.2009.00556.x
Dalziell, E. P., Mcmanus, S. T. (2004). Resilience, Vulnerability, and Adaptive Capacity: Implications for System Performance. International Forum for Engineering Decision Making, 17.
Danes, S. M., Lee, J., Amarapurkar, S., Stafford, K., Haynes, G., Brewton, K. E. (2009). Determinants of family business resilience after a natural disaster by gender of business owner. Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, 14(4), 333–354. https://doi.org/10.1142/S1084946709001351
Demmer, W. A., Vickery, S. K., Calantone, R. (2011). Engendering resilience in small-and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs): A case study of Demmer Corporation. International Journal of Production Research, 49(18), 5395–5413. https://doi.org/10.1080/00207543.2011.563903
Dervitsiotis, K. N. (2004). Navigating in turbulent environmental conditions for sustainable business excellence. Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, 15(5–6), 807–827. https://doi.org/10.1080/14783360410001680251
Dewald, J., Bowen, F. (2010). Storm clouds and silver linings: Responding to disruptive innovations through cognitive resilience. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 34(1), 197–218. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6520.2009.00312.x
Doe, P. J. (1994). Creating a resilient organization. Canadian Business Review, 21, 22.
Erol, O., Henry, D., Sauser, B. (2010). Exploring resilience measurement methodologies. In 20th Annual International Symposium of the International Council on Systems Engineering, INCOSE 2010, 1, 302–322.
Erol, O., Henry, D., Sauser, B., Mansouri, M. (2010). Perspectives on measuring enterprise resilience. In 2010 IEEE International Systems Conference Proceedings, SysCon 2010, 587–592. https://doi.org/10.1109/SYSTEMS.2010.5482333
Erol, O., Mansouri, M., Sauser, B. (2009). A framework for enterprise resilience using service oriented architecture approach. In 2009 IEEE International Systems Conference Proceedings, 127–132. https://doi.org/10.1109/SYSTEMS.2009.4815785
Erol, O., Sauser, B. J., Mansouri, M. (2010). A framework for investigation into extended enterprise resilience. Enterprise Information Systems, 4(2), 111–136. https://doi.org/10.1080/17517570903474304
Fiksel, J. (2003). Designing Resilient, Sustainable Systems. Environmental Science and Technology, 37(23), 5330–5339. https://doi.org/10.1021/es0344819
Fiksel, J. (2006). Sustainability and resilience: toward a systems approach. Sustainability: Science, Practice, Policy, 2(2), 14–21. https://doi.org/10.1080/15487733.2006.11907980
Freeman, S. F., Hirschhorn, L., Triad, M. M. (2003). Moral purpose and organizational resilience: Sandler O’Neill & Partners, LP in the aftermath of September 11, 2001. In Academy of Management Proceedings, 2003, B1-B6. https://doi.org/10.5465/AMBPP.2003.13792457
Gibson, C., Tarrant, M. (2010). A “Conceptual Models” approach to organisational resilience. The Australian Journal of Emergency Management, 25(2), 8–14.
Gilly, J.P., Kechidi, M., Talbot, D. (2014). Resilience of organisations and territories: The role of pivot firms. European Management Journal, 32(4), 596–602. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.emj.2013.09.004
Grande, O., Trucco, P. (2008). Resilience analysis of civil defence organization: A fuzzy cognitive Map based approach. In 9th International Conference on Probabilistic Safety Assessment and Management 2008, PSAM 2008, 2, 1542–1549.
Grøtan, T. O., Asbjørnslett, B. E. (2007). ICT in resilient global logistics. In Proceedings of ESREL 2007, 2349–2356.
Grøtan, T. O., Størseth, F., Rø, M. H., Skjerve, A. B. (2008). Resilience, Adaptation and Improvisation – increasing resilience by organising for successful improvisation. 3rd Symposium on Resiience Engineering, 1–7.
Gunasekaran, A., Rai, B. K., Griffin, M. (2011). Resilience and competitiveness of small and medium size enterprises: An empirical research. International Journal of Production Research, 49(18), 5489–5509. https://doi.org/10.1080/00207543.2011.563831
Hamel, G., Valikangas, L. (2003). The quest for resilience. Harvard Business Review, 81(9), 52–65.
Hardy, T. L. (2014). Resilience: A holistic safety approach. In Proceedings - Annual Reliability and Maintainability Symposium, 1–6. https//doi.org/10.1109/RAMS.2014.6798494
Heinicke, M. (2014). Implementation of resilient production systems by production control. In Procedia CIRP, 19, 105–110. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procir.2014.05.001
Henry, D., Ramirez-Marquez, J. E. (2010). A generic quantitative approach to resilience: A proposal. In 20th Annual International Symposium of the International Council on Systems Engineering, INCOSE 2010, 1, 291–301.
Hilton, J., Wright, C., Kiparoglou, V. (2012). Building resilience into systems. In SysCon 2012 - 2012 IEEE International Systems Conference, Proceedings, 638–645. https://doi.org/10.1109/SysCon.2012.6189449
Holling, C. S. (1973). Resilience and Stability of Ecological Systems. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 1–23. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.es.04.110173.000245
Hollnagel, E. (2010). How Resilient Is Your Organisation? An Introduction to the Resilience Analysis Grid (RAG). Sustainable Transformation: Building a Resilient Organization.
Horne III, J. F. (1997). The coming age of organizational resilience. Business Forum, 22(2/3), 24–29.
Horne III, J. F., Orr, J. E. (1998). Assessing behaviors that create resilient organizations. Employment Relations Today, 24(4), 29–39.
Hu, Y., Li, J., Holloway, L. E. (2008). Towards modeling of resilience dynamics in manufacturing enterprises: Literature review and problem formulation. In 4th IEEE Conference on Automation Science and Engineering, CASE 2008, 279–284. https://doi.org/10.1109/COASE.2008.4626539
Hu, Y., Li, J., Holloway, L. E. (2009). A modeling and aggregation approach for analyzing resilience of manufacturing enterprises. In Conference Proceedings - IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, 692–697. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICSMC.2009.5346703
Hu, Y., Li, J., Holloway, L. E. (2010). Achieving resilience for a class of serial production networks. In Proceedings of the 2010 American Control Conference, ACC 2010, 5326–5331. https://doi.org/10.1109/ACC.2010.5530745
Ismail, H. S., Poolton, J., Sharifi, H. (2011). The role of agile strategic capabilities in achieving resilience in manufacturing-based small companies. International Journal of Production Research, 49(18), 5469–5487. https://doi.org/10.1080/00207543.2011.563833
Jaaron, A. A. M., Backhouse, C. J. (2014). Service organisations resilience through the application of the vanguard method of systems thinking: A case study approach. International Journal of Production Research, 52(7), 2026–2041. https://doi.org/10.1080/00207543.2013.847291
Jackson, D., Firtko, A., Edenborough, M. (2007). Personal resilience as a strategy for surviving and thriving in the face of workplace adversity: a literature review. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 60(1), 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2648.2007.04412.x
Jackson, S. (2007). A multidisciplinary framework for resilence to disasters and disruptions. Journal of Integrated Design and Process Science, 11(2), 91–108.
Johnsen, S. O., Veen, M. (2012). Risk assessment and improvement of resilience of critical communication infrastructure. In Advances in Safety, Reliability and Risk Management - Proceedings of the European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL 2011, 2739–2747.
Johnson, J., Gheorghe, A. V. (2013). Antifragility analysis and measurement framework for systems of systems. International Journal of Disaster Risk Science, 4(4), 159–168. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13753-013-0017-7
Jones, K. H. (2014). Engineering Antifragile Systems: A Change In Design Philosophy. Procedia Computer Science, 32, 870–875. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2014.05.504
Kamalahmadi, M., Parast, M. M. (2016). A review of the literature on the principles of enterprise and supply chain resilience: Major findings and directions for future research. International Journal of Production Economics, 171, 116–133. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpe.2015.10.023
Kendra, J., Wachtendorf, T. (2002). Elements of Community Resilience in the World Trade Center Attack, 97–103.
Kendra, J., Wachtendorf, T. (2003). Elements of resilience after the World Trade Center disaster: reconstituting New York City’s Emergency Operations Centre. Disasters, 27(1), 37–53. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-7717.00218
Kennon, D., Schutte, C. S. L., Lutters, E. (2015). An alternative view to assessing antifragility in an organisation: A case study in a manufacturing SME. CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology, 64(1), 177–180. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cirp.2015.04.024
Kohno, Y., Masuda, Y., Nagahashi, H., Tanaka, K., Tashiro, K. (2012). Form development for self-rating an organization’s vulnerability and resilience to disruption. Journal of Disaster Research, 7(4), 392–407. https://doi.org/10.20965/jdr.2012.p0392
Lambertini, L., Marattin, L. (2016). To adjust or not to adjust after a cost-push shock? A simple duopoly model with (and without) resilience. Economics of Innovation and New Technology, 25(2), 172–181. https://doi.org/10.1080/10438599.2015.1031344
Lee, A. V, Vargo, J., Seville, E. (2013). Developing a Tool to Measure and Compare Organizations’ Resilience. Natural Hazards Review, 14, 29–41. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)NH.1527-6996.0000075.
Lengnick-Hall, C. A., Beck, T. E. (2005). Adaptive fit versus robust transformation: How organizations respond to environmental change. Journal of Management, 31(5), 738–757. https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206305279367
Lengnick-Hall, C. A., Beck, T. E., Lengnick-Hall, M. L. (2011). Developing a capacity for organizational resilience through strategic human resource management. Human Resource Management Review, 21(3), 243–255. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hrmr.2010.07.001
Linnenluecke, M. K. (2017). Resilience in Business and Management Research: A Review of Influential Publications and a Research Agenda. International Journal of Management Reviews, 19(1), 4–30. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijmr.12076
Linnenluecke, M. K., Griffiths, A. (2010). Beyond adaptation: Resilience for business in light of climate change and weather extremes. Business and Society, 49(3), 477–511. https://doi.org/10.1177/0007650310368814
Linnenluecke, M. K., Griffiths, A., Winn, M. (2012). Extreme weather events and the critical importance of anticipatory adaptation and organizational resilience in responding to impacts. Business Strategy and the Environment, 21(1), 17–32. https://doi.org/10.1002/bse.708
Louisot, J.-P. (2015). Risk and/or Resilience Management. Risk Governance & Control: Financial Markets and Institutions, 5(2), 84–91. https://doi.org/10.22495/rgcv5i2c1art2
Macuzić, I., Tadić, D., Aleksic, A., Stefanović, M. (2016). A two step fuzzy model for the assessment and ranking of organizational resilience factors in the process industry. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 40, 122–130. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jlp.2015.12.013
Mafabi, S., Munene, J. C., Ahiauzu, A. (2015). Creative climate and organisational resilience: the mediating role of innovation. International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 23(4), 564–587. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJOA-07-2012-0596
Mallak, L. A. (1997). How to build a resilient organization. In Proceedings of the Industrial Engineering Solutions 1997 Conference, 170–177. Miami.
Mallak, L. A. (1998a). Measuring resilience in health care provider organizations. Health Manpower Management, 24(4), 148–152. https://doi.org/10.1108/09552069810215755
Mallak, L. A. (1998b). Putting Organisational Resilience to Work. Industrial Management, 40(6), 8–13.
Mamouni Limnios, E. (2011). Resilient organizations : Offense versus Defense. In In 25th Annual ANZAM Conference, 7–9.
Mamouni Limnios, E., Mazzarol, T., Ghadouani, A., Schilizzi, S. G. (2014). The resilience architecture framework: Four organizational archetypes. European Management Journal, 32(1), 104–116. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.emj.2012.11.007
Manyena, S. B. (2006). The Concept of Resilience Revisited. Disasters, 30(4), 433–450. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0361-3666.2006.00331.x
Markman, G. M., Venzin, M. (2014). Resilience: Lessons from banks that have braved the economic crisis-And from those that have not. International Business Review, 23(6), 1096–1107. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibusrev.2014.06.013
McManus, S., Seville, E., Vargo, J., Brunsdon, D. (2007). Resilience Management: A Framework for Assessing and Improving the Resilience of Organisations. Resilient Organisations Research Report 2007/01.
McManus, S., Seville, E., Vargo, J., Brunsdon, D. (2008). Facilitated Process for Improving Organizational Resilience. Natural Hazards Review, 9(2), 81–90. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)1527-6988(2008)9:2(81)
Megele, C. (2014). Resilient organizations turning challenges into opportunities: HR occupies a central place in preparing companies for change. Human Resource Management International Digest, 22(5), 1–4. https://doi.org/10.1108/HRMID-07-2014-0092
Milanzi, D., Weeks, R. (2014). Understanding servitization: A resilience perspective. In PICMET 2014 - Portland International Center for Management of Engineering and Technology, Proceedings: Infrastructure and Service Integration, 2332–2342.
Orchiston, C., Prayag, G., Brown, C. (2016). Organizational resilience in the tourism sector. Annals of Tourism Research, 56, 145–148. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2015.11.002
Ortiz-de-Mandojana, N., Bansal, P. (2015). The long-term benefits of organizational resilience through sustainable business practices. Strategic Management Journal. https://doi.org/10.1002/smj.2410
Oxford University Press. (2017). Oxforddictionaries. Retrieved November 17, 2017, from https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/organization
Pal, R., Torstensson, H., Mattila, H. (2014). Antecedents of organizational resilience in economic crises - An empirical study of Swedish textile and clothing SMEs. International Journal of Production Economics, 147(PART B), 410–428. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpe.2013.02.031
Powley, E. H. (2009). Reclaiming resilience and safety: Resilience activation in the critical period of crisis. Human Relations, 62(9), 1289–1326. https://doi.org/10.1177/0018726709334881
Proper, J. W., Pienaar, W. J. (2011). Resilience as an imperative in public transport organisations. Corporate Ownership and Control, 8(4 D), 373–388. https://doi.org/10.22495/cocv8i4c3art6
Read, D. (2005). Some Observations on Resilience and Robustness in Human Systems. Cybernetics & Systems, 36, 773–802. https://doi.org/10.1080/01969720500306253
Reinmoeller, P., Van Baardwijk, N. (2005). The link between diversity and resilience. MIT Sloan Management Review, 46(4), 61.
Rerup, C. (2001). “Houston, we have a problem”: Anticipation and improvisation as sources of organizational resilience. Comportamiento Organizacional y Gestão, 7(1), 27–44.
Rigaud, E., Neveu, C., Duvenci-Langa, S., Obrist, M.-N., Rigaud, S. (2013). Proposition of an organisational resilience assessment framework dedicated to railway traffic management. In Rail Human Factors: Supporting Reliability, Safety and Cost Reduction, 727–732. https://doi.org/10.1201/b13827-97
Righi, A. W., Saurin, T. A., Wachs, P. (2015). A systematic literature review of resilience engineering: Research areas and a research agenda proposal. Reliability Engineering & System Safety, 141, 142–152. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ress.2015.03.007
Riolli, L., Savicki, V. (2003). Information system organizational resilience. Omega, 31(1), 227–233. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0305-0483(03)00023-9
Robb, D. (2000). Building Resilient Organizations. Od Practitioner, 32(3), 27–32.
Ruiz-Martin, C., López-Paredes, A., Wainer, G. (2015). Applying complex network theory to the assessment of organizational resilience. IFAC-PapersOnLine, 48(3), 1224–1229. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ifacol.2015.06.251
Ruiz-Martin, C., Pérez Ríos, J., Wainer, G., Pajares, J., Hernández, C., López-Paredes, A. (2017). The Application of the Viable System Model to Enhance Organizational Resilience. In Advances in Management Engineering (pp. 88–100). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-55889-9_5
Sanchis, R., Poler, R. (2013). Definition of a framework to support strategic decisions to improve Enterprise Resilience. In IFAC Proceedings Volumes (IFAC-PapersOnline), 700–705. https://doi.org/10.3182/20130619-3-RU-3018.00600
Seville, E. (2009). Resilience: Great Concept... But What Does it Mean for Organizations? Tephra, July, 9–14.
Sheffi, Y. (2007). Building a Resilient Organization. The Bridge - National Academy of Engineering, 37(1), 30–36.
Sheffi, Y., Rice Jr., J. B. (2005). A supply chain view of the resilient enterprise. MIT Sloan Management Review, 47(1), 41–48+94.
Smith, D., Fischbacher, M. (2009). The changing nature of risk and risk management: The challenge of borders, uncertainty and resilience. Risk Management, 11(1), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1057/rm.2009.1
Somers, S. (2009). Measuring resilience potential: An adaptive strategy for organizational crisis planning. Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, 17(1), 12–23. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-5973.2009.00558.x
Starr, R., Newfrock, J., Delurey, M. (2003). Enterprise Resilience: Managing Risk in the Networked Economy. Strategy and Business, 30, 70–79.
Stewart, J., O’Donnell, M. (2007). Implementing change in a public agency. International Journal of Public Sector Management, 20(3), 239–251. https://doi.org/10.1108/09513550710740634
Suddaby, R. (2010). Editor’s comments: Construct clarity in theories of management and organization. Academy of Management Review, 35(3), 346–357. https://doi.org/10.5465/AMR.2010.51141319
Sutcliffe, K. M., Vogus, T. J. (2003). Organizing for resilience. In K. Cameron, J. E. Dutton, R. E. Quinn (Eds.), Positive Organizational Scholarship, 94–110. San Francisco.
Tadić, D., Aleksic, A., Stefanović, M., Arsovski, S. (2014). Evaluation and Ranking of Organizational Resilience Factors by Using a Two-Step Fuzzy AHP and Fuzzy TOPSIS. Mathematical Problems in Engineering, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/418085
Taleb, N. N. (2012). Antifragile: Things that Gain from Disorder (Vol. 3). New York: Random House.
Taleb, N. N., Douady, R. (2013). Mathematical definition, mapping, and detection of (anti)fragility. Quantitative Finance, 13(11), 1677–1689. https://doi.org/10.1080/14697688.2013.800219
Thomas, A., Byard, P., Francis, M., Fisher, R., White, G. R. T. (2016). Profiling the resiliency and sustainability of UK manufacturing companies. Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, 27(1), 82–99. https://doi.org/10.1108/JMTM-06-2014-0086
Tierney, K. J. (2003). Conceptualizing and measuring organizational and community resilience: Lessons from the emergency response following the September 11, 2001 attack on the World Trade Center. Disaster Research Center Preliminary Papers.
Tillement, S., Cholez, C., Reverdy, T. (2009). Assessing organizational resilience: an interactionist approach. Management, 12(4), 230–264. https://doi.org/10.3917/mana.124.0230
Tolk, A., Johnson IV, J. J. (2013). Implementing Antifragiles: Systems that Get Better under Change. In American Society for Engineering Management. 2013 International Annual Conference.
Tompkins, J. A. (2007). 4 Steps to business resilience. Industrial Management (Norcross, Georgia), 49(4), 14–18.
Tranfield, D., Denyer, D., Smart, P. (2003). Towards a methodology for developing evidence-informed management knowledge by means of systematic review. British Journal of Management, 14, 207–222. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8551.00375
Tse, T., Couturier, J., Roux, L. (2012). Resilience of a business: The case of Yellow Pages Directories. International Journal of Management Practice, 5(2), 149–169. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJMP.2012.047582
Tseitlin, A. (2013). The antifragile organization. Communications of the ACM, 56(8), 40. https://doi.org/10.1145/2492007.2492022
Tukamuhabwa, B. R., Stevenson, M., Busby, J., Zorzini, M. (2015). Supply chain resilience: Definition, review and theoretical foundations for further study. International Journal of Production Research, 53(18), 5592–5623. https://doi.org/10.1080/00207543.2015.1037934
Välikangas, L., Romme, A. G. L. (2012). Building resilience capabilities at “Big Brown Box, Inc.” Strategy & Leadership, 40(4), 43–45. https://doi.org/10.1108/10878571211242948
van Breda, A. D. (2016). Building Resilient Human Service Organizations. Human Service Organizations Management, Leadership and Governance, 40(1), 62–73. https://doi.org/10.1080/23303131.2015.1093571
Van Trijp, J. M. P., Ulieru, M., Van Gelder, P. H. A. J. M. (2012a). Quantitative approach of organizational resilience for a Dutch Emergency Response Safety Region. In Advances in Safety, Reliability and Risk Management - Proceedings of the European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL 2011 (pp. 173–180).
Van Trijp, J. M. P., Ulieru, M., Van Gelder, P. H. A. J. M. (2012b). Quantitative modeling of organizational resilience for Dutch emergency response safety regions. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part O: Journal of Risk and Reliability, 226(6), 666–676. https://doi.org/10.1177/1748006X12466371
Vogus, T. J., Sutcliffe, K. M. (2007). Organizational resilience: Towards a theory and research agenda. Conference Proceedings - IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, 3418–3422. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICSMC.2007.4414160
Watanabe, C., Kishioka, M., Nagamatsu, A. (2004). Resilience as a source of survival stategy for high-technology firms experiencing megacompetition. Technovation, 24(2), 139–152. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0166-4972(02)00048-2
Weick, K. E. (1993). The collapse of sensemaking in organizations: The Mann Gulch disaster. Administrative Science Quarterly, 628–652. https://doi.org/10.2307/2393339
Whitehorn, G. (2010). Building Organisational Resilience in the Public Sector. In Comcover Insurance and Risk Management Conference.
Whitman, Z. R., Kachali, H., Roger, D., Vargo, J., Seville, E. f. (2013). Short-form version of the Benchmark Resilience Tool (BRT-53). Measuring Business Excellence, 17(3), 3–14. https://doi.org/10.1108/MBE-05-2012-0030
Wicker, P., Filo, K., Cuskelly, G. (2013). Organizational resilience of community sport clubs impacted by natural disasters. Journal of Sport Management, 27(6), 510–525. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsm.27.6.510
Winston, A. (2014). Resilience in a hotter world. Harvard Business Review, 92(4), 56–64,132.
Woods, D. D. (2015). Four concepts for resilience and the implications for the future of resilience engineering. Reliability Engineering and System Safety, 141, 5–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ress.2015.03.018
Wright, C., Kiparoglou, V., Williams, M., Hilton, J. (2012). A framework for resilience thinking. Procedia Computer Science, 8, 45–52. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2012.01.012
Zhang, W. J., Van Luttervelt, C. A. (2011). Toward a resilient manufacturing system. CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology, 60(1), 469–472. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cirp.2011.03.041
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives- 4.0 International License