Flammability analysis of military fabrics


  • R. Yahaya Science and Technology Research Institute for Defence (STRIDE) https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8156-5673
  • N. Zahari Science and Technology Research Institute for Defence (STRIDE)
  • W.A.W. Wan Adnan Science and Technology Research Institute for Defence (STRIDE)




flammability, cone calorimeter, smoke density, heat release rate


There are many types of fabric materials used in military applications. From clothing to protective equipment, fabric analysis mostly focused on its physical properties. Still, its flammability has not been well studied, such as ease of ignition, heat release, and toxicity. This paper reports the flammability properties of fabric in military applications. The ignition time, heat release, and smoke production of six commercially available military fabrics are discussed in this article. The fabrics analysed are cotton, polyester-cotton, coated nylon, and kenaf fabric. The fabric grouping into the coated and printed fabric while cotton and kenaf were tested as a comparison. Results indicated that coated fabric (N420D and N1000D) showed higher TTI compared to printed fabric (P35C65, P35C65M, and P65C35). It is affected by heat flux, the areal density of the sample, sample mass, and the number of sample layers. Coated fabrics (N420D and N1000D) indicate higher EHC compared with other fabrics. For printed fabric, a relatively lower EHC was observed as it indicates incomplete combustion. Total heat release of the samples tested was presented as an integration of the HRR vs time curve. Coated samples show the highest values for PHRR and THR values compared to printed and cotton fabrics.


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Author Biographies

R. Yahaya, Science and Technology Research Institute for Defence (STRIDE)

Protection and Biophysical Technology Division

N. Zahari, Science and Technology Research Institute for Defence (STRIDE)

Mechanical and Aerospace Technology Division

W.A.W. Wan Adnan, Science and Technology Research Institute for Defence (STRIDE)

Mechanical and Aerospace Technology Division


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