Protocol: Value Stream Maping in Healthcare. A systematic literature review
Keywords:VSM, Lean, Healthcare, Value Stream Map, patient flow, process improvement, Literature review, SciMat, bibliometrix, bibliometric, primary care, secondary care
Until 2016, very few works had investigated the use of the VSM. With this research, we will discover if the situation has changed in the last 3 years. In the lean manufacturing context, different techniques that help the continuous improvement process can be used (Marin-Garcia & Bonavia, 2011; Marin-Garcia & Carneiro, 2010; Marin-Garcia et al., 2012; Scott, 2001). One is the Value Stream Map (VSM) (Coetzee et al., 2016; Marin-Garcia & Mateo Martínez, 2013; Vidal-Carreras et al., 2015). This publication is a protocol (Marin-Garcia, 2015; Marin-Garcia, 2019) that aims to promote research transparency and replication. The concepts investigated in it are defined (VSM and health services sector), a research niche is justified, and the search and codification procedure of the systematic literature review is established. Although there are different versions of the VSM (Dinis-Carvalho et al., 2018; Hines & Rich, 1997; Shou et al., 2017), we will focus on that proposed by Rother and Shook (1998). The main peculiarity of the version by Rother and Shook (1998) is that it graphically shows the flow of information and the flow of materials in the same diagram (Lucherini & Rapaccini, 2017; Shou et al., 2017; Vidal-Carreras et al., 2015), which is necessary to complete a project, a product or a service (Bevilacqua et al., 2014; Lucherini & Rapaccini, 2017). It is also very intuitive and easy to understand, even by non-technical people (Lucherini & Rapaccini, 2017).
The VSM version that we have chosen is usually applied via standardized symbols (Lucherini & Rapaccini, 2017; Vidal-Carreras et al., 2015) following a 4-stage procedure (Rother & Shook, 1998; Shou et al., 2017): 1) select a product family (each VSM represents a family of sufficiently homogeneous products to represent the process); 2) draw the current VSM; 3) model the improved process by drawing the desirable future VSM; 4) implement actions to obtain a similar process to the future VSM. These four stages can be split into eight in other implementation versions (Tapping, 2007; Tapping et al., 2002; Tapping & Shuker, 2003). The above procedure allows value-added (VA) and nonvalue-added (NVA) activities and initiating actions to be identified to improve the proportion of VA versus NVA (Bevilacqua et al., 2014; Shou et al., 2017; Vidal-Carreras et al., 2015). Our goal is to include any healthcare level (primary care, secondary care - medical specialists, hospitals, referral centers for rare diseases, and geriatric or disability care). We wish to explore the use in organizations of any country worldwide whose ownership is public, private or a nonprofit foundation. We will focus on patient health services. We will not include the pharmaceutical industry or the operation of governmental or nongovernmental public health structures (e.g. ministries, the Red Cross or similar). Different literature reviews on the VSM have been published. Some focus on analyzing several sectors, predominantly manufacturing. Previous research seems to indicate that the VSM allows the transparency of the process to improve by making it much more understandable for the agents involved in it (Shou et al., 2017; Vidal-Carreras et al., 2015); reduce process times (lead times) (Shou et al., 2017) and inventories (Shou et al., 2017). However, these results come mostly from repetitive manufacturing contexts (linked to the automotive or consumer electronics sectors, or their auxiliary industries), and normally from Anglo-Saxon countries. There do not seem to be enough publications in order to generalize these results to all kinds of contexts. Some publications reveal that the barriers from using such tools can overcome facilitators in public service contexts (Marin-Garcia et al., 2018b).
Very few reviews have focused specifically on the VSM and the health services sector (Nowak et al., 2017; Vidal-Carreras et al., 2015). Both conclude that there is not enough material to provide evidence for and a conclusive answer to our research questions. The systematic review that we propose in this protocol intends to answer (in a future publication) the following questions: 1) what is the VSM research gap that applies to the health services sector that currently exists?; 2) is the VSM being used in hospitals or other health centers?; 3) what VSM version is common in health sector publications?; 4) collect examples of the VSM in hospitals/heath centers; 5) how was the VSM used in the hospitals/health centers that have applied it?; 6) what problems and/or difficulties have arisen while drawing the VSM or after drawing it? Different programs will be used for the bibliometric analysis (see details in Marin-Garcia and Alfalla-Luque (2019)). First, the R Bibliometrix package (Aria & Cuccurullo, 2017; Garfield, 2004; Wulff Barreiro, 2007) and also the suitability of SciMAT (Cobo et al., 2012; Santana & Lopez-Cabrales, 2019) to visualize thematic maps and strategic maps will be tested.
Ahluwalia, S. C., Damberg, C. L., Silverman, M., Motala, A., & Shekelle, P. G. (2017). What defines a high-performing health care delivery system: A systematic review. The Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety, 43(9), 450-459. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcjq.2017.03.010
Aloini, D., Cannavacciuolo, L., Gitto, S., Lettieri, E., Malighetti, P., & Visintin, F. (2018). Evidence-based management for performance improvement in healthcare. Management Decision, 56(10), 2063-2068. https://doi.org/10.1108/MD-10-2018-004
Andreu Andres, M. A., Garcia-Carbonell, A., González-Ladrón-de-Guevara, F., & Watts, F. (2018). Contrasting innovation competence fincoda model in software engineering: Narrative review. Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management, 11(4), 715-734. https://doi.org/10.3926/jiem.2656
Aria, M., & Cuccurullo, C. (2017). Bibliometrix: An r-tool for comprehensive science mapping analysis. Journal of Informetrics, 11(4), 959-975. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joi.2017.08.007
Bevilacqua, M., Ciarapica, F. E., Germani, M., Mazzuto, G., & Paciarotti, C. (2014). Relation of project managers' personality and project performance: An approach based on value stream mapping. Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management, 7(4), 34. https://doi.org/10.3926/jiem.1005
Borenstein, M., Hedges, L. V., Higgins, J. P. T., & Rothstein, H. R. (2009). Introduction to meta-analysis. UK: John Wiley & Sons. https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470743386
Cobo, M. J., López-Herrera, A. G., Herrera-Viedma, E., & Herrera, F. (2012). Scimat: A new science mapping analysis software tool. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 63(8), 1609-1630. https://doi.org/10.1002/asi.22688
Coetzee, R., van der Merwe, K., & van Dyk, L. (2016). Lean implementation strategies: How are the toyota way principles addressed? South African Journal of Industrial Engineering, 27(3), 79-91. https://doi.org/10.7166/27-3-1641
Cringles, M. C. (2002). Developing an integrated care pathway to manage cancer pain across primary, secondary and tertiary care. International Journal of Palliative Nursing, 8(5), 247-255. https://doi.org/10.12968/ijpn.2002.8.5.10372
De Steur, H., Wesana, J., Dora, M. K., Pearce, D., & Gellynck, X. (2016). Applying value stream mapping to reduce food losses and wastes in supply chains: A systematic review. Waste Management, 58, 359-368. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2016.08.025
Dinis-Carvalho, J., Guimaraes, L., Sousa, R. M., & Leao, C. P. (2018). Waste identification diagram and value stream mapping: A comparative analysis. International Journal of Lean Six Sigma. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJLSS-04-2017-0030
Dogan, N. O., & Unutulmaz, O. (2016). Lean production in healthcare: A simulation-based value stream mapping in the physical therapy and rehabilitation department of a public hospital. Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, 27(1-2), 64-80. https://doi.org/10.1080/14783363.2014.945312
Fadahunsi, K. P., Akinlua, J. T., O'Connor, S., Wark, P. A., Gallagher, J., Carroll, C., . . . O'Donoghue, J. (2019). Protocol for a systematic review and qualitative synthesis of information quality frameworks in ehealth. Bmj Open, 9(3). https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-024722
Garfield, E. (2004). Historiographic mapping of knowledge domains literature. Journal of Information Science, 30(2), 119-145. https://doi.org/10.1177/0165551504042802
Gitlow, H., Zuo, Q., Ullmann, S. G., Zambrana, D., Campo, R. E., Lubarsky, D., & Birnbach, D. J. (2013). The causes of never events in hospitals. International Journal of Lean Six Sigma, 4(3), 338-344. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJLSS-03-2013-0016
Gonzalez-Aleu, F., Van Aken, E. M., Cross, J., & Glover, W. J. (2018). Continuous improvement project within kaizen: Critical success factors in hospitals. The TQM Journal, 30(4), 335-355. https://doi.org/10.1108/TQM-12-2017-0175
Grumbach, K., & Bodenheimer, T. (1995). The organization of health care. JAMA, 273(2), 160-167. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.1995.03520260082038
Heinzen, M., Mettler, S., Coradi, A., & Boutellier, R. (2015). A new application of value-stream mapping in new drug development: A case study within novartis. Drug Discovery Today, 20(3), 301-305. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drudis.2014.10.009
Hines, P., & Rich, N. (1997). The seven value stream mapping tools. International Journal of Operations and Production Management, 17(1), 46-64. https://doi.org/10.1108/01443579710157989
Knight, C., Patterson, M., & Dawson, J. (2019). Work engagement interventions can be effective: A systematic review. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 28(3), 348-372. https://doi.org/10.1080/1359432X.2019.1588887
Losilla, J.-M., Oliveras, I., Marin-Garcia, J. A., & Vives, J. (2018). Three risk of bias tools lead to opposite conclusions in observational research synthesis. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology(101), 61-72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclinepi.2018.05.021
Lucherini, F., & Rapaccini, M. (2017). Exploring the impact of lean manufacturing on flexibility in smes. Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management, 10(5), 27. https://doi.org/10.3926/jiem.2119
Lummus, R. R., Vokurka, R. J., & Rodeghiero, B. (2006). Improving quality through value stream mapping: A case study of a physician's clinic. Total Quality Management and Business Excellence, 17(8), 1063-1075. https://doi.org/10.1080/14783360600748091
Makwana, A. D., & Patange, G. S. (2019). A methodical literature review on application of lean & six sigma in various industries. Australian Journal of Mechanical Engineering. https://doi.org/10.1080/14484846.2019.1585225
Marin-Garcia, J. A. (2015). Publishing in two phases for focused research by means of "research collaborations". WPOM-Working Papers on Operations Management, 6(2), 76-80. https://doi.org/10.4995/wpom.v6i2.4459
Marin-Garcia, J. A. (2016). Upvx-mooc course: Research methodologies-systematic literature review https://www.upvx.es/courses/course-v1:ManagementEducation+researchmethodologies+2016-01/about: UPVx Formación Online. Universitat Politécnica de Valencia
Marin-Garcia, J. A. (2019). Publishing in three stages to support evidence based practice in om, hrm and teaching&learning innovation. WPOM-Working Papers on Operations Management, 10(2), in press.
Marin-Garcia, J. A., & Alfalla-Luque, R. (2019). Protocol: How to deal with partial least squares (pls) research in operations management. A guide for sending papers to academic journals. WPOM-Working Papers on Operations Management, 10(1), 29-69. https://doi.org/10.4995/wpom.v10i1.10802
Marin-Garcia, J. A., Betancour, E., & Giraldo-OMeara, M. (2018a). Protocol: Literature review on the psychometric properties of the short versions of the scales of social desirability in the answers to competency self-assessment questionnaires. WPOM-Working Papers on Operations Management, 9(1), 14-29. https://doi.org/10.4995/wpom.v9i1.9172
Marin-Garcia, J. A., & Bonavia, T. (2011). Strategic priorities and lean manufacturing practices in automotive suppliers. Ten years after. In M. Chiaberge (Ed.), New trends and developments in automotive engineering: InTech
Marin-Garcia, J. A., & Carneiro, P. (2010). Desarrollo y validación de un modelo multidimensional de la producción ajustada. Intangible Capital, 6(1), 78-127. https://doi.org/10.3926/ic.2010.v6n1.p78-127
Marin-Garcia, J. A., Carneiro, P., & Miralles, C. (2012). Effect of lean manufacturing practices on non-financial performance results: Empirical study in spanish sheltered work centers. In G. Mejia & N. Velasco (Eds.), Production systems and supply chain management in emerging countries: Best practices (pp. 3-24): Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-26004-9_1
Marin-Garcia, J. A., Garcia-Sabater, J. J., & Maheut, J. (2018b). Protocol: Action planning for action research about kaizen in public organizations. The case of higher education. WPOM-Working Papers on Operations Management, 9(1), 13. https://doi.org/10.4995/wpom.v9i1.8990
Marin-Garcia, J. A., & Martinez Tomas, J. (2016). Deconstructing amo framework: A systematic review. Intangible Capital, 12(4), 1040-1087. https://doi.org/10.3926/ic.838
Marin-Garcia, J. A., & Mateo Martínez, R. (2013). Barreras y facilitadores de la implantación del tpm. Intangible Capital, 9(3), 823-853. https://doi.org/10.3926/ic.360
Martinez-Tomas, J., & Marin-Garcia, J. A. (2019). Protocol: What does the wage structure depend on? Evidence from the ine salary national survey (pilot study with 2006 data). WPOM-Working Papers on Operations Management, 10(1), 70-103. https://doi.org/10.4995/wpom.v10i1.11753
Martínez Jurado, P. J., & Moyano Fuentes, J. (2017). Aprendiendo a enseñar lean management mediante juegos: Revisión sistemática de la literatura learning to teach lean management through games: Systematic literature review. WPOM-Working Papers on Operations Management, 8, 164-170. https://doi.org/10.4995/wpom.v8i0.7199
Medina-López, C., Marin-Garcia, J. A., & Alfalla-Luque, R. (2010). Una propuesta metodológica para la realización de búsquedas sistemáticas de bibliografía (a methodological proposal for the systematic literature review). WPOM-Working Papers on Operations Management, 1(2), 13-30. https://doi.org/10.4995/wpom.v1i2.786
Nowak, M., Pfaff, H., & Karbach, U. (2017). Does value stream mapping affect the structure, process, and outcome quality in care facilities? A systematic review. Systematic Reviews, 6, 11. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13643-017-0563-y
Patterson, M., Rick, J., Wood, S., Carroll, C., Balain, S., & Booth, A. (2010). Systematic review of the links between human resource management practices and performance: Health Technology Assessment, 14 (51). https://doi.org/10.3310/hta14510
Poksinska, B. (2010). The current state of lean implementation in health care: Literature review. Quality Management in Health Care, 19(4), 319-329. https://doi.org/10.1097/QMH.0b013e3181fa07bb
Prajogo, D. I., & McDermott, C. M. (2008). The relationships between operations strategies and operations activities in service context. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 19(4), 506-520. https://doi.org/10.1108/09564230810891932
Rafique, M. Z., Ab Rahman, M. N., Saibani, N., & Arsad, N. (2019). A systematic review of lean implementation approaches: A proposed technology combined lean implementation framework. Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, 30(3-4), 386-421. https://doi.org/10.1080/14783363.2017.1308818
Reijula, J., Nevala, N., Lahtinen, M., Ruohom Aki, V., & Reijula, K. (2014). Lean design improves both health-care facilities and processes: A literature review. Intelligent Buildings International, 6(3), 170-185. https://doi.org/10.1080/17508975.2014.901904
Romero, L. F., & Arce, A. (2017). Applying value stream mapping in manufacturing: A systematic literature review. IFAC-PapersOnLine, 50(1), 1075-1086. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ifacol.2017.08.385
Rother, M., & Shook, J. (1998). Learning to see. Value stream mapping to create value and eliminate muda. Massachusetts: Lean Enterprise Institute.
Sanchez-Ruiz, L., Marin-Garcia, J. A., & Blanco, B. (2018). Protocol: A meta-review on continuous improvement to know the state of this research field. WPOM-Working Papers on Operations Management, 9(2). https://doi.org/10.4995/wpom.v9i2.10752
Sanchez, L., & Blanco, B. (2014). Three decades of continuous improvement. Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, 25(9-10), 986-1001. https://doi.org/10.1080/14783363.2013.856547
Santana, M., & Lopez-Cabrales, A. (2019). Sustainable development and human resource management: A science mapping approach. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, in press(0). https://doi.org/10.1002/csr.1765
Saunders, M., Lewis, P., & Thornhill, A. (2016). Research methods for business students, 7/e. Essex: Pearson Education.
Scott, G. (2001). Customer satisfaction: Six strategies for continuous improvement. Journal of Healthcare Management, 46(2), 82. https://doi.org/10.1097/00115514-200103000-00004
Shou, W., Wang, J., Wu, P., Wang, X., & Chong, H.-Y. (2017). A cross-sector review on the use of value stream mapping. International Journal of Production Research, 55(13), 3906-3928. https://doi.org/10.1080/00207543.2017.1311031
Singh, B., Garg, S. K., & Sharma, S. K. (2011). Value stream mapping: Literature review and implications for indian industry. International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 53(5-8), 799-809. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-010-2860-7
Syltevik, S., Karamperidis, S., Antony, J., & Taheri, B. (2018). Lean for airport services: A systematic literature review and agenda for future research. International Journal of Quality and Reliability Management, 35(1), 34-49. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJQRM-08-2016-0135
Tapping, D. (2007). La nueva guia lean de bolsillo (produccion lean). Herramientas para eliminar el desperdicio. United States of America: MCS Media, Inc.
Tapping, D., Luyster, T., & Shuker, T. (2002). Value stream management eight steps to planning, mapping, and sustaining lean improvements (1 ed.). New York: Productivity Press. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781482278163
Tapping, D., & Shuker, T. (2003). Value stream management for the lean office. New York: Productivity Press. https://doi.org/10.1201/b16934
Vandborg, M. P., Edwards, K., Kragstrup, J., Vedsted, P., Hansen, D. G., & Mogensen, O. (2012). A new method for analyzing diagnostic delay in gynecological cancer. International Journal of Gynecological Cancer, 22(5), 712-717. https://doi.org/10.1097/IGC.0b013e31824c6d0e
Vidal-Carreras, P. I., Garcia-Sabater, J. J., Marin-Garcia, J. A., & Garcia-Sabater, J. P. (2015, 2015). Value stream mapping on healthcare. Paper presented at the 2015 International Conference On Industrial Engineering And Systems Management (Iesm). https://doi.org/10.1109/IESM.2015.7380170
Wulff Barreiro, E. (2007). El uso del software histcite para identificar artículos significativos en búsquedas por materias en la web of science. Documentación de las Ciencias de la Información, 30, 45-64.
How to Cite
This journal is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.