Virtual and didactic approach to the defensive heritage of the 16th century Fort of the Trinitat (Roses, Girona)

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.4995/var.2022.15733

Keywords:

virtual archaeology, poliorcetic, 3D matte painting, re-enactment, fortification

Abstract

The Trinitat Fort, built in the mid-16th century, is an extraordinary example of European military architecture from the mid-16th century, conceived as an artillery machine, whose mission was to protect the natural port of Roses (Girona, Spain). The fortification had a long history of warfare that ended with the Peninsular War (1808–1814), which turned it into ruins. In 2002, the Roses city council planned an ambitious architectural intervention to recover the fortification. The works restored the overall exterior volumetry, with current construction materials. The large interior spaces resulting from the intervention had little in common with the original structures. Starting in 2016, the museum projected to open the fort to the public. The strategy focused on 3D works, which were used to plan museographic proposals and to make an interior space understandable, with an aspect very distant from that of the original construction. It entailed extensive fieldwork analyzing the sources and structural remains that were preserved and surmising the possible architectural solutions the fortress originally contained. Based on evidence and hypotheses, the group carried out a reconstruction from virtual archeology, and it developed a didactic iconography to explain the artifact to a broad spectrum of visitors and students. This iconography was applied on the panels, in the scenography and audiovisuals of the museum, and in the dissemination materials. The museography was implemented between 2019 and 2021. Considering the variables and comprehensive needs for a wide range of users and visitors, we completed the virtual archeology proposal based on realistic criteria, giving importance in 3D to textures and colors. It incorporated the anthropic and movable factors through matte painting techniques and images obtained with the support of re-enactment groups.Highlights: - The Fort of the Trinitat, built in the middle of the 16th century, is an extraordinary poliorcetic piece, conceived as an artillery machine, whose mission was to protect the natural port of Roses (Girona, Spain). - Between 2019 and 2021, an ambitious reconstruction of virtual archaeology has been carried out, developing a didactic iconography aimed at broad-spectrum visitors and formal education students. - The didactic iconography proposal developed in the Fort of the Trinitat does not try to compete with the large market productions, but it does try to explore sustainable intervention models to make the past and its heritage known.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Francesc Xavier Hernàndez-Cardona, Universitat de Barcelona

Department of Applied Didactics

Rafael Sospedra-Roca, Universitat de Barcelona

Department of Applied Didactics

Josep Ramon Casals-Ausió, Universitat de Barcelona

DIDPATRI Research Group

References

Aguiló, M. (2006). Los ingenieros en la construcción del Mediterráneo. In C. de Seta (Coord.), España en el Mediterráneo. La construcción del espacio (pp.18-41). Madrid, Spain: Centro de Estudios y Experimentación de Obras Publicas.

Ainaud, J. (1965). La plaza fuerte de Rosas. Revista de Gerona, (31), 38-42. https://revistes.udg.edu/revista-girona/article/view/21685/25483

Aparicio-Resco, P. (2021). Guía para la documentación de reconstrucciones virtuales de bienes patrimoniales. Revista Schema, (2), 129-146.

Aparicio-Resco, P., García Álvarez-Busto, A., Muñiz-López, I., & Fernández-Calderón, N. (2021). 3D virtual reconstruction of the Gauzón Castle (Castrillón, Principado de Asturias). Virtual Archaeology Review, 12(25), 158-176. https://doi.org/10.4995/var.2021.14940

Baig i Aleu, M. (1988). La vila de Roses en els segles XVI i XVII. Annals de l'Institut d'Estudis Empordanesos, 21, 135-206. https://raco.cat/index.php/AnnalsEmpordanesos/article/view/92992/171337

Barreau, J. B., Esnault, E., Foucher, J., Six, M., & Le Faou, C. (2020). 3D modelling of a 15th century city gate of Rennes: Portes Mordelaises. Virtual Archaeology Review, 11(22), 41-55. https://doi.org/10.4995/var.2020.12653

Benito, J. (1926). El diario de un sitiado: relación histórica de los sucesos ocurridos en Rosas con motivo del sitio y rendición de la plaza a los franceses en el año 1808. Figueres, Spain: Tipografía La Comarca.

Brusaporci, S. (2010). Sperimentazione di modelli tridimensionali nello studio dell'architettura storica. In: Brusaporci S (ed) Sistemi Informativi Integrati per la tutela la conservazione e la valorizzazione del patrimonio architettonico e urbano (pp.58-64). Roma, Italy: Gangemi.

Burch, J., & Palahí, Ll. (2019). El castell de la Trinitat. Guies del patrimoni cultural de Roses, 2. Girona, Spain: Documenta Universitaria.

Cabezas, M., & Montes, F. P. (2019). Reconstrucción virtual de la fortaleza bajomedieval de Aguilar de la Frontera. EGA Expresión Gráfica Arquitectónica, 24(35), 236-247. https://doi.org/10.4995/ega.2019.10200

Cámara, A. (Coord.) (2005). Los ingenieros militares de la monarquía hispánica en los siglos XVII y XVIII. Madrid, Spain: Ministerio de Defensa / Asociación Española de Amigos de los Castillos.

Capdevila, M., Roca, N. (2013). Consolidació del Castell de la Trinitat (Roses): reconstrucció i restauració. Jornadas Internacionales sobre la intervención en el Patrimonio Arquitectónico. Actas (pp. 285-289). Barcelona, Spain: Ministerio de Educación Cultura y Deporte; Col·legi d'Arquitectes de Catalunya; Agrupació d'Arquitectectes per la defensa i la intervenció en el patrimoni arquitectònic.

Carnevali, L., & Cundari, C. (2010). Modello materiale e modello digitale a supporto della didattica della rappresentazione. In X Congreso Internacional de Expresión Gráfica aplicada a la Edificación. Nuevas líneas de investigación en Ingeniería de Edificación (pp. 1019-1026). Alacant, Spain: Servei de Publicacions. Universitat d'Alacant.

Centofanti, M., Brusaporci, S., & Lucchese, V. (2014). Architectural Heritage and 3D Models. In P. Di Giamberardino, D. Iacoviello, R. Natal Jorge, J. M. R. S. Tavares (Eds), Computational Modeling of Objects Presented in Images Computational Modeling of Objects Presented in Images. Lecture Notes in Computational Vision and Biomechanics (15, pp. 31-49). Cham, Switzerland: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-04039-4_2

Cobos, F. (Coord.) (2004). La artillería de los Reyes Católicos. Valladolid, Spain: Junta de Castilla y León.

de la Fuente, P. (2002). Aigua, ciutat i territori a la Roses renaixentista. Annals de l'Institut d'Estudis Empordanesos, 35, 351-372.

de la Fuente, P. (1994). La fortaleza de Roses i els engiyers de Lluís XIV: una aportació al coneixement de la seva actuació (1693-1714). Annals de l'Institut d'Estudis Empordanesos, 27, 117-148.

de la Fuente, P. (1998). Les fortificacions reials del golf de Roses en l'època moderna. Figueres, Spain: El Brau.

de Groot, J. (2016). Consuming History. Historians and Heritage in Contemporary Popular Culture. Oxon/New York, EEUU: Rouletge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315640754

de Sojo, F. (1927). El Capitán Luis Pizaño: estudio histórico-militar referente a la primera mitad del siglo XVI. Madrid, Spain: Imprenta del Memorial de Ingenieros del Ejército.

Díaz, N. (1991). Roses una vila amb història. Barcelona, Spain: Tec, S.A.

Díaz, C., Pedler, R., & Reay, J. (2008). El setge de Roses de 1808: Tres visions de la guerra del Francès. Roses, Spain: Fundació Roses Història i Natura.

Duffy, Ch. (1997). Siege warfare: The fortress in the Early Modern World 1494-1660. Oxon/New York, EEUU: Routledge.

Elsaesser, Th. (2019). Film History as Media Archaeology: Tracking Digital Cinema (pp. 229-266). Amsterdam, Netherlands: Amsterdam University Press.

Evans, T. L., & Daly, P. (Eds.) (2006). Digital Archaeology. Bridging Method and Theory. London, UK: Routledge.

Flynn, B. (2007). The morphology of space in virtual heritage. In F. Cameron, S. Kenderdine (Eds.), Theorizing digital cultural heritage: a critical discourse (pp. 349-368). Cambridge, EEUU: MIT Press Scholarship Online. https://doi.org/10.7551/mitpress/9780262033534.003.0018

Forte, M. (1997). Virtual Archaeology: Re-creating Ancient Worlds. New York, EEUU: H.N. Abrams.

Georgopoulos, A. (2014). 3D virtual reconstruction of archaeological monuments. Mediterranean Archaeology and Archaeometry, 14(4), 155-164.

Geroimenko, V. (Ed.) (2021). Augmented Reality in Tourism, Museums and Heritage: A New Technology to Inform and Entertain. Cham, Switzerland: Springer Nature. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-70198-7_1

Hermon, S., & Kalisperis, L. (2011). Between the real and the virtual: 3D visualization in the cultural heritage domain-expectations and prospects. Virtual Archaeology Review, 2(4), 59-63. https://doi.org/10.4995/var.2011.4556

Hernàndez-Cardona, F. X., & Sospedra-Roca, R. (2018). Castell de la Trinitat de Roses. Proposta de Museografía Didáctica. Barcelona, Spain: Fundació Bosch i Gimpera / Ajuntament de Roses.

Hernàndez-Cardona, F. X. (2005). Renaissance fortifications in the Mediterranean. Barcelona, Spain: Taller de Projectes. Universitat de Barcelona.

Hernàndez-Cardona, F. X., Feliu-Torruella, M., Sospedra-Roca, R., González-Sanz, M., & Wilson-Daily, A. (2019). Generación de iconografía didáctica a partir de recreación histórica y 3D. El caso de la Guerra Civil Española. Ensayos. Revista de la Facultad de Educación de Albacete, 34, 67-82.

Hernàndez-Cardona, F. X. (2021). Les armes de foc a Catalunya. Manufactura i Indústria. Barcelona, Spain: Rafael Dalmau Editor.

Hernàndez-Cardona, F. X., & Rojo, M. C. (Eds.) (2012). Museografía didáctica e interpretación de espacios arqueológicos. Gijón, Spain: Trea.

Hernando, C. J. (Coord.) (2000). Las fortificaciones de Carlos V. Madrid, Spain: Ediciones del Umbral.

Hughes, B. P. (1976). La puissance de Feu. L'efficacité des armes sur le champ de bataille de 1630 à 1850. Lausanne, Switzerland: Edita-Vilo.

ICOMOS (2017). Los Principios de Sevilla. Principios internacionales de la Arqueologia Virtual. 19ª Asamblea General de ICOMOS, Nueva Delhi. Retrieved December 17, 2020, from https://icomos.es/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/Seville-Principles-IN-ES-FR.pdf

Liarokapis, F., Voulodimos, A., Doulamis, N., & Doulamis, A. (2020). Visual Computing for Cultural Heritage. Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-37191-3

López-Menchero, V. M., & Grande, A. (2011). Hacia una Carta Internacional de Arqueología Virtual. El borrador SEAV. Virtual Archaeology Review, 2(4), 71-75. https://doi.org/10.4995/var.2011.4558

López-Menchero, V. M., Maschner, G., McLeod, J. B., Du Vernay, J., & Hervás, M. A. (2020). The work of Global Digital Heritage for the massive digitization of fortifications in Spain. In J. Navarro Palazón, L. J. García-Pulido, (Eds.), FORTMED 2020 - Defensive Architecture of the Mediterranean (pp. 330-340). Valencia, Spain: Universitat Politècnica de València. https://doi.org/10.4995/FORTMED2020.2020.11415

López Sopeña, A. (1792). Plano y perfiles del fuerte de la Trinidad llamado Botón de Rosas, 28 de marzo de 1792. Madrid, Spain: Archivo General Militar de Madrid (IHCM), SH. GE-20/6.

McManamon, F. (2014). Digital Archaeological Data: Ensuring Acces, Use, and Preservation. In Smith, C. (Ed.). Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology (pp. 23-82). Berlin, Germany: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-0465-2_1219

Pujol, L. (2011). Realism in virtual reality applications for cultural heritage. International Journal of Virtual Reality, 10(3), 41-49.

Parry, R. (2013). Museums in a Digital Age. London, UK; New York, EEUU: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203716083

Rahaman, H., & Champion, E. (2019). The Scholarly Rewards and Tragic Irony of 3D Models in Virtual Heritage Discourse. In Haeusler, M. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 24th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA) (2, pp.695-704). Wellington, New Zealand: Victoria University of Wellington.

Tarrus, J., Martin, A., & Nieto, X. (1989). La Ciutadella de Roses. Annals de l'Institut d'estudis Empordanesos, 22, 315-331.

von Lünen, A., Lewis, K. J., Litherland B., & Cullum, P. (2019). Historia Ludens: The Playing Historian. Oxon/New York, EEUU: Rouletge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429345616

Downloads

Published

2022-01-21

How to Cite

Hernàndez-Cardona, F. X., Sospedra-Roca, R., & Casals-Ausió, J. R. (2022). Virtual and didactic approach to the defensive heritage of the 16th century Fort of the Trinitat (Roses, Girona). Virtual Archaeology Review, 13(26), 103–115. https://doi.org/10.4995/var.2022.15733

Issue

Section

Articles