Virtual Archaeology Review <p style="text-align: justify;">The <strong><em>Virtual Archaeology Review</em> (VAR)</strong> is an international web-based, open-access, peer-reviewed scholarly journal. Its focus is a mix of arts and engineering that research on the new field of virtual archaeology. The journal is broadly interdisciplinary, publishing works by scholars in the fields of conservation, documentation, 3D surveying, computer science, dissemination, gaming and other similar disciplines related to heritage and archaeology.</p> Universitat Politècnica de València en-US Virtual Archaeology Review 1989-9947 <p><a href="" rel="license"><img src="" alt="Creative Commons License" /></a></p> <p>This journal is licensed under a <a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License</a>.</p> Building archaeology informative modelling turned into 3D volume stratigraphy and extended reality time-lapse communication <p class="VARAbstract"><span lang="EN-GB">This paper describes the case study of the damaged church of St. Francesco in the hamlet of Arquata del Tronto (Italy) that was struck by the earthquake in 2016. The municipality commissioned the research to support the preliminary design of the preservation plan. The first digitisation level has been started from the richness of surveying data acquired from static and dynamic t</span><span lang="EN-CA">errestrial laser scanni</span><span lang="EN-GB">ng (TLS), and photogrammetry, overcoming challenging constraints due to the scaffolding covering the surfaces. The geometric survey allowed authors to acquire massively geometric and material information supporting the three-dimensional (3D) volume stratigraphic and the creation of the Heritage Building Information Modelling (HBIM). The paper proposes a shift from the Geographic Information System (GIS)-based analysis of the materials toward spatial HBIM management. Building Archaeology is turned into HBIM 3D volume stratigraphy, overcoming the bidimensional (2D) surface mapping, in favour of a 3D understanding of direct and indirect sources. Material mapping is added to HBIM 3D volume stratigraphy, and each stratigraphic unit (SU) has its proprieties. The 3D volume stratigraphic database has been designed to collect the data on the unit detection at three levels (direct sources data collection, indirect data documentation, the relation among the BIM object elements). A common data environment (CDE) has been set up to share the 3D volume informative models that can be accessed, and all the information gathered. The knowledge transfer using the eXtended reality (XR) has been devoted to the citizen and tourist fruition, enhancing the comprehension of difficult concepts like the SUs to support a better critical 3D reconstruction. It includes the phases of construction across time-lapse documentation that validates related information within the building archaeology informative models leaving spaces to the uncertainty and documenting the relationship established so far thanks to the direct and indirect sources. The result obtained is a live digital twin that can be continuously updated, which justifies the costs and time demanding of HBIM despite 2D drawings.</span></p><p class="VARAbstract"><span lang="EN-GB">Highlights: </span></p><p class="VARAbstract"><span lang="EN-GB">• 3D survey and scan-to-HBIM process for the creation of a digital twin were oriented to the preliminary design of the preservation plan of the church of St. Francesco in Arquata del Tronto (Italy). </span></p><p class="VARAbstract"><span lang="EN-GB">• Stratigraphy is investigated and oriented towards a digitisation process to share different levels of knowledge through new forms of digital-sharing such as Common Data Environment (CDE) and cloud-based BIM platform. </span></p><p class="VARAbstract"><span lang="EN-GB">• eXtended reality (XR) is the final tool to reach new levels of communication and a wider audience characterised by experts in the construction sector and virtual and non-expert tourists.</span></p> Fabrizio Banfi Raffaella Brumana Angelo Giuseppe Landi Mattia Previtali Fabio Roncoroni Chiara Stanga Copyright (c) 2021 Virtual Archaeology Review 2022-01-21 2022-01-21 13 26 1 21 10.4995/var.2022.15313 Lost archaeological heritage: virtual reconstruction of the medieval castle of San Salvador de Todea <p class="VARAbstract"><span lang="EN-GB">The medieval castle of San Salvador de Todea constitutes a remarkable paradigm for the rock castles of Galicia and the northwest of Spain, attending to its features but also to the destruction it was subjected. The hill where it stands was the object of various archaeological interventions led from 2016 to 2018, that identified the site as a medieval fortress and recovered part of its structures. Being one of few medieval castles of the 12<sup>th</sup>-15<sup>th</sup> centuries in Galicia subjected to consecutive interventions and actively studied. Although the excavations provided an important amount of information about the chronology, distribution, material culture and even diet of the inhabitants, the interpretation of the castle is really complex. The preserved remains correspond to the foundations of the structures, mainly a few walls and a high amount of carvings scattered over the hill. </span></p><p class="VARAbstract"><span lang="EN-GB">This paper gathers the results of the investigation developed to create a reconstructive hypothesis for the castle and its materialization in a digital model, as a way to interpret and understand its structure. To achieve this aim, we combined the analysis of the archaeological data and the geomorphology of the own hill, with the study of fortresses with similar disposition and chronology, and the appliance of architectonical rules, in a multidisciplinary study. In order to generate a reasonable, justified and scientific model of the castle, useful as an instrument to study and comprehend this type of construction. The resulting model shows the disposition, height and entity of the structures that conformed to the castle, the transit areas and indoor spaces, and provides new data to calculate the visibility and predominance of the construction over the landscape, among others. Finally, to ensure the rigour and scientific approach of the reconstruction, we utilised a scale of certainty level to show the results, along with photorealistic textures to recreate the probable aspect of the castle. </span></p><p class="VARAbstract"><span lang="EN-GB">Highlights: </span></p><p class="VARAbstract"><span lang="EN-GB">- Virtual reconstruction of a Late Medieval rock castle, from the archaeological remains recorded during the excavations of the site and the comparison with similar structures. </span></p><p class="VARAbstract"><span lang="EN-GB">- Overview of the reconstruction methodology, decision-making process and resulting constructive hypothesis, with a detailed description of the level of certainty of each part. </span></p><p class="VARAbstract"><span lang="EN-GB">- Multidisciplinary approach to achieve a scientific model that helps to understand the castle distribution and its importance on the control of the landscape.</span></p> Patricia Valle Abad Adolfo Fernández Fernández Alba Antía Rodríguez Nóvoa Copyright (c) 2021 Virtual Archaeology Review 2022-01-21 2022-01-21 13 26 22 44 10.4995/var.2022.16178 Parametric approach to the reconstruction of timber structures in Campanian Roman houses <p>The virtual reconstruction of ancient architecture aims at describing the ‘original’ elevation and volume of a disappeared building. The feeble archaeological traces, often limited to their foundations, left by houses impair the reinstating of their image, in contrast to that which is made possible by the massive structures of public buildings. A twofold problem arises when dealing with timber structures during a reconstruction procedure: at the local scale of the individual beam (e.g. joists or rafters), one must define a beam’s cross-section given its span; at the overall scale, the shape of a building results from that which its structures allowed it to have been. Therefore, this work proposes a procedure to deal with the ‘local’ problem, i.e. the definition of a beam’s cross-section from its span. To that end, a simplified, parametric structural model is required. The available bits of information are organized into inputs, parameters and outputs of the analytical problem by matching each information with a structural quantity (load, cross-section, spacing, etc.). Two mathematical relationships among them are proposed, which express two equally possible dimensioning criteria, based either on joists’ strength or deformability. It seems that the joist’s strength was the option for lightly loaded joists, as in roofs or tightly spaced floor frames; conversely, heavily loaded joists conformed to the deformability criterion. Both dimensioning procedures are translated into a visual algorithm in Grasshopper, a plugin for Rhinoceros modelling software, which enables the parametric definition of objects. Finally, the proposed procedure is tentatively applied to automatically reconstruct the floor and roof frames that belonged to the domus on top of the Sarno Baths in Pompeii. The algorithm automatically picked the dimensioning criterion in relation to each frame’s span and hypothesized loads and determined joists’ orientation and minimum cross-sections. The obtained floor frames, whose structural conditions are considered as sensible, will be adopted in the overall virtual reconstruction proposal of the ruins, also based on the analytical evaluation of masonry structures.</p><p>Highlights:</p><p>- Proposal of a structural model for the dimensioning of timber floor beams in domestic spaces based on archaeological and literature information.</p><p>- Parametrical interpretation of the model in Grasshopper for Rhinoceros software and optimization analysis of the structural parameters involved.</p><p>- Application of the model to the reconstruction of floor frames in a house in the Sarno Baths complex, Pompeii.</p> Luca Sbrogiò Copyright (c) 2021 Virtual Archaeology Review 2022-01-21 2022-01-21 13 26 45 61 10.4995/var.2022.15319 Promoting the heritage of the city of San Cristobal de La Laguna through a temporal link with a 16th century map <p class="VARAbstract">There is an increasing interest in the conservation of historical cities since they provide a l<span>ink to the roots of their communities and </span>bring cultural and economic benefits to their inhabitants. In this paper, we present an approach to promote the knowledge of the UNESCO World Heritage city of San Cristóbal de La Laguna in the Canary Islands, Spain. The city was founded in 1496 and has a unique value due to its urban design. In this work, we present a web application that allows a user to locate places and addresses of the current city in its first known map authored by Leonardo Torriani in the 16<sup>th</sup> century. To build this application we have georeferenced the ancient map in the current cartography. The georeferencing process needs the identification of homologous ground control points in the coordinate systems of both the old map and the current cartography, and the definition of a transform between them. Best results were obtained with the non-parametric natural transform interpolation leading to a global mean error of 4.9 m that reduces to 3.2 m in the historical city centre. To provide a fast response to the user of the web application, a technique to precompute offline the natural transform is presented. The web application has a simple front-end where the user fills the current city address in a form. This activates a query to obtain the geographical coordinates of the address that are transformed to map coordinates using the pre-computed transformation. These map coordinates are used by a map viewer in the front end that locates the user address in the ancient map. To test the performance of the web application, the load of the system has been analysed obtaining a latency of 1.4 s in 50 concurrent users. Results show that the web application provides accurate results in the historical centre while providing satisfactory response times.</p><p class="VARAbstract">Highlights:</p><p class="VARAbstract">- This study investigates the issue of georeferencing the first historic map (16th century) of San Cristóbal de La Laguna and the possibility to geolocate current city addresses.</p><p class="VARAbstract">- By using the natural interpolation method, the georeferencing errors were diminished below 4 m in most of the historic city.</p><p class="VARAbstract">- A user-friendly web application has been designed which precisely locates current directions in the old map providing a valuable tool for the promotion of the heritage of the city.</p> Fernando Pérez Nava Isabel Sánchez Berriel Alejandro Pérez Nava Virginia Gutiérrez Rodríguez Jesús Pérez Morera Copyright (c) 2021 Virtual Archaeology Review 2022-01-21 2022-01-21 13 26 62 75 10.4995/var.2022.15322 Crania Canaria 2.0: constructing a virtual skull collection <p class="VARKeywords">El Museo Canario stores a large collection of aboriginal skulls that have been essential to the study of the origin and chronology of the population of the Canary archipelago since the 19<sup>th </sup>century. Regrettably, research has been dominated by biased and <em>racial </em>interpretations of both bioarchaeological and cultural evidence. When scientific racism and craniometric studies were rejected, studies of the Canarian indigenous skulls variability was also abandoned without replies. However, digital technologies and virtual sciences allow us to improve research and re-evaluate old paradigms. In this work, we present a digitalisation project aiming to construct a virtual database of the indigenous Canarian skulls, using a simple method of digitalisation that is very suitable to deal with large collections- The procedure, involving a portable 3D structured light scanner has allowed us to digitally reproduce more than 400 skulls stored at Museo Canario. This work offers a wide variety of possibilities for archaeology and anthropology. The versatility of 3D digital models enables the generation of interactive documentation, educational material for digital conservation and dissemination purposes. Indeed, 3D models are easily shared and can be displayed over diverse web-based repositories and online platforms and so, creating virtual online museums. We have created a profile in Sketchfab (<a href=""></a>) where we intend to upload gradually the complete virtual collection of skulls we have realised. Moreover, digital skulls can serve as research objects. We discuss the advantages of studying 3D objects in a computerised environment, which includes traditional anthropometric studies (linear measurements and angles) but also 3D geometric morphometric approaches. In fact, in future studies, we will apply 3D geometric morphometrics for reassessing skull variation of ancient Canarians going beyond old paradigms and taking into account the latest advances in archaeology, anthropology and genetics in Canarian research. </p><p>Highlights:<br />- El Museo Canario stores an exceptional human skull collection that has served as the basis for numerous studies seeking to reveal the origin and chronology of the indigenous population.<br />- This study presents an easy methodology for obtaining digital imagery using a 3D surface scanner, which allows constructing a virtual skull collection comprising more than 400 individuals.<br />- Virtual 3D models have numerous advantages and applications in anthropology and archaeology, not only improving research but also permitting the re-evaluation of old paradigms.</p> Alexia Serrano-Ramos Copyright (c) 2021 Virtual Archaeology Review 2022-01-21 2022-01-21 13 26 76 87 10.4995/var.2022.16082 Dissemination, assessment and management of historic buildings by thematic virtual tours and 3D models <p>The digitalization of the historical-architectural heritage for virtual reality (VR) applications is crucial within the contemporary scientific and technical debate for several aspects. In fact, beyond the exploration for education and entertainment purposes, the employment of three-dimensional (3D) reality-based and computer-based models and environments seems to be very promising for performance assessment and risk management as well. Particularly, in order to develop and validate smart, low-cost and user-friendly tools, which might apply even in cases of limited time and budget, the present paper is going to propose a methodological workflow based on thematic virtual tours of 360° scenes, which integrate a variety of informative contents and digital products as external hotspots/switches. The VR tours, where 3D models might play a key role for an accurate representation of relevant parts and/or analytical elaboration of further data, are conceived as flexible and scalable solutions, supporting users, technicians and authorities through remote access, diagnosis of the state of conservation and communication of safety measures. The application of the proposed methods and techniques to a representative case study, the Norman-Swabian Castle of Gioia del Colle (Ba), South Italy, is presented in order to illustrate the achievable results and highlight the benefit of innovative “digital” solutions for data collection, storage and communication, compared to the traditional “analogical” practices. In detail, a Web-GIS platform, developed within a previous research project, is integrated with direct links to three thematic virtual tours that provide added contents for inclusive dissemination (timeline schemes, aerial views, 3D sculptural and architectural details), performance assessment (diagnostic reports, decay maps, 3D reconstructions of technical components) and risk management (exit signs, help instructions, warnings). Thus, the VR tours, while documenting realistically the state of the site, might act as host environments of digital products, at increasing complexity, all displayed according to an intuitive and accessible communication approach.</p> <p>Highlights:</p> <p>• Virtual tours of 360° scenes, linking thematic digital contents, are proposed as intuitive and versatile tools for smart documentation, conservation and protection of historical buildings.</p> <p>• The role of 3D reality-based and computer-based models is discussed toward their integration and correlation within thematic virtual tours of 360° scenes.</p> <p>• The potential of immersive environments for sharing knowledge about conservation issues and training users on safety measures in historic buildings is underlined.</p> Mariella De Fino Silvana Bruno Fabio Fatiguso Copyright (c) 2021 Virtual Archaeology Review 2022-01-21 2022-01-21 13 26 88 102 10.4995/var.2022.15426 Virtual and didactic approach to the defensive heritage of the 16th century Fort of the Trinitat (Roses, Girona) <p class="VARAbstract"><span lang="EN-US">The Trinitat Fort, built in the mid-16th century, is an extraordinary example of European military architecture from the mid-16<sup>th</sup> century, conceived as an artillery machine, whose mission was to protect the natural port of Roses (Girona, Spain). The fortification had a long history of warfare that ended with the Peninsular War (1808–1814), which turned it into ruins. In 2002, the Roses city council planned an ambitious architectural intervention to recover the fortification. The works restored the overall exterior volumetry, with current construction materials. The large interior spaces resulting from the intervention had little in common with the original structures. Starting in 2016, the museum projected to open the fort to the public. The strategy focused on 3D works, which were used to plan museographic proposals and to make an interior space understandable, with an aspect very distant from that of the original construction. It entailed extensive fieldwork analyzing the sources and structural remains that were preserved and surmising the possible architectural solutions the fortress originally contained. Based on evidence and hypotheses, the group carried out a reconstruction from virtual archeology, and it developed a didactic iconography to explain the artifact to a broad spectrum of visitors and students. This iconography was applied on the panels, in the scenography and audiovisuals of the museum, and in the dissemination materials. The museography was implemented between 2019 and 2021. Considering the variables and comprehensive needs for a wide range of users and visitors, we completed the virtual archeology proposal based on realistic criteria, giving importance in 3D to textures and colors. It incorporated the anthropic and movable factors through matte painting techniques and images obtained with the support of re-enactment groups</span><span lang="EN-US">.</span></p><p class="VARAbstract"><span lang="EN-US"><strong></strong>Highlights: </span></p><p class="VARAbstract"><span lang="EN-US">- The Fort of the Trinitat, built in the middle of the 16th century, is an extraordinary poliorcetic piece, conceived as an artillery machine, whose mission was to protect the natural port of Roses (Girona, Spain). </span></p><p class="VARAbstract"><span lang="EN-US">- Between 2019 and 2021, an ambitious reconstruction of virtual archaeology has been carried out, developing a didactic iconography aimed at broad-spectrum visitors and formal education students. </span></p><p class="VARAbstract"><span lang="EN-US">- The didactic iconography proposal developed in the Fort of the Trinitat does not try to compete with the large market productions, but it does try to explore sustainable intervention models to make the past and its heritage known. <br /></span></p> Francesc Xavier Hernàndez-Cardona Rafael Sospedra-Roca Josep Ramon Casals-Ausió Copyright (c) 2021 Virtual Archaeology Review 2022-01-21 2022-01-21 13 26 103 115 10.4995/var.2022.15733 Digital models applied to the typological analysis of the olive oil mills with beam and weight presses in Écija <p>For centuries, mills with beam and weight presses have been the production units used in the town of Écija to obtain the oil. The intensification of olive tree cultivation in the 18<sup>th</sup> century gave rise to the proliferation of these constructions throughout the town, which at one point was home to no less than 286 mills of this type. However, by the mid-20<sup>th</sup> century events surrounding the local olive groves caused many of them to fall into disuse. Nowadays, the mills present an advanced state of decay, to the extent that many of them have disappeared partly or completely. In view of the functional nature of these production units and the short space of time in which they were built, we decided to conduct a typological study aimed at identifying any common patterns in their design. The geometric and proportional relationships between their constituent parts obtained using digital information models (Geographic Information System (GIS), 3D point clouds and databases) enabled us to determine standard structures based on ranges of deduced values. The repetition of these patterns suggested that it would be useful to create a graphical database using a parameterised HBIM (Historic Building Information Modelling), which in turn facilitates the introduction of attributes associated with these mills from a dynamic database, therefore favouring interoperability in heritage management as a response to the critical situation of the mills today. At the same time, the correspondence in the relationships of proportionality between the mills analysed typologically and the model of a 16<sup>th</sup>-century mill, suggests that 18<sup>th</sup>-century mills were adapted to patterns developed in older presses.</p><p>Highlights:</p><p>- The typological study of the Écija (Seville) mills with beam and weight presses reveals common patterns in these preindustrial buildings.</p><p>- The proportional relationships between their constituent parts obtained using digital information models enabled us to determine standard structures. </p><p>- These patterns have similarly enabled us to generate a parameterised HBIM model as a standard graphical base for the historical mills in Écija.</p> Jorge Moya-Muñoz Francisco Pinto-Puerto Copyright (c) 2021 Virtual Archaeology Review 2022-01-21 2022-01-21 13 26 116 134 10.4995/var.2022.15077 Digitization and virtual reality projects in archaeological heritage. The case of the archaeological site of Motilla del Azuer in Daimiel (Ciudad Real) <p class="VARKeywords">This article presents the virtualization project of the Motilla del Azuer archaeological site in Daimiel (Ciudad Real, Spain). This project is using new and unique tools for the research, documentation, interpretation and dissemination of this important prehistoric site. The incorporation of advanced technological tools in the field of archaeological and cultural heritage, such as digital documentation and virtual reality (VR), are creating new avenues for managing cultural legacies. Modern advances in 3D digitization and VR allow the application of these techniques on a wide range of cultural assets with different characteristics and chronologies, opening a broad spectrum of new possibilities in research, education, and public outreach. This is an expanding area of heritage management as it creates a positive impact on the economic, cultural and social activities of local communities and regions. Because of these positive impacts, more and more stakeholders such as institutions, administrations, and heritage organisations are taking an active interest in this sector of technological development. In the case of the Motilla del Azuer archaeological site, the digitization and virtualization work undertaken, along with other dissemination activities, have provided critical products for the presentation, interpretation, and promotion of this monument.</p><p class="VARKeywords">La Motilla del Azuer is one of the most unique archaeological sites in Spain. Dating from the Bronze Age, it is a fortification with a central plan, formed by three lines of concentric walls distributed around a central tower (Fig. 2). Inside, the labyrinthine shape of the access systems is remarkable, made up of narrow corridors, stairs, ramps... This defensive enclosure allowed the protection and control of essential products for the people of the Bronze Age. Its true uniqueness is that it encloses monumental water well more than 15 m deep.</p><p class="VARKeywords">La Motilla del Azuer is open to the public and receives thousands of visitors each year. But for conservation reasons, the number of people who can access the site is highly controlled. Likewise, due to its defensive nature and its age, it is a space through which it is difficult to circulate, which makes it impossible for people with reduced mobility to visit. For these and other reasons, the Daimiel City Council in collaboration with the US non-profit entity Global Digital Heritage and the Spanish company Myou Software, has developed a project to digitize the archaeological site and make it accessible through an installed VR system, located permanently in the Daimiel Museum, the interpretation centre for the site (Fig. 10). This facility is designed to be used both by people in wheelchairs or with reduced mobility, as well as all visitors to the museum, and provides a realistic virtual tour of the site. To achieve this level of realism, a detailed 3D digitization of the site using photogrammetry, laser scanning, and 3D spherical photography was undertaken, and a VR installation based on the use of an HTC Vive Pro device that has motion controllers for hands (HTC Vive controllers) and feet (HTC Vive Trackers) was developed. The primary software is called Myou Engine, an open-source 3D engine compatible with XR, developed by the Myou Software company. In order to increase the immersiveness as much as possible, the Myou Software company has also developed a control system called Natural Locomotion that works by moving the arms and legs (Fig. 11).</p><p class="VARKeywords">The final result of the project has allowed the implementation of an innovative VR space that increases accessibility to the archaeological site, represents a new tourist attraction for the town, and promotes new ways of managing and enjoying archaeological heritage.</p> Miguel Torres Mas Víctor Manuel López-Menchero Bendicho Julio López Tercero Juan Torrejón Valdelomar Herbert Maschner Copyright (c) 2021 Virtual Archaeology Review 2022-01-21 2022-01-21 13 26 135 146 10.4995/var.2022.15004 Documentation and analysis of a Roman anchor stock and its iconographic and epigraphic sealed elements <p class="VARAbstract"><span lang="EN-GB">This paper aims to present the documentation and analysis methodology carried out on a lead trap from the ancient period, which belongs to the collection of traps in the Museum of Cádiz (Andalusia, Spain). The anchor stock had some interesting characteristics for this research. On the one hand, from the point of view of conservation and restoration, due to the alterations it presented. On the other hand, from a historical and archaeological point of view, it showed signs of reliefs on its surface hidden under the alteration products. The removal of the different layers of alteration that covered the surface during conservation and restoration treatments revealed an unpublished iconographic and epigraphic programme, as well as possible marks of use and manufacture. The poor state of conservation of the original surface made it impossible to visualise the details as a whole, so we applied photogrammetric methods, and subsequently processed models using various GIS analysis and point cloud processing softwares.</span></p><p class="VARAbstract"><span lang="EN-GB">Two photogrammetric models (in Agisoft PhotoScan) were made to document the trap in general: one prior to the conservation and restoration process; and a second three-dimensional (3D) model once the surface had been cleaned. The purpose of the second model was to visualise the reliefs programme in general, as well as the different surface details. The first complete 3D model of the object was used to perform a virtual reconstruction of the anchor including the elements that did not preserve, using a 3D modelling program (Blender).</span></p><p class="VARAbstract"><span lang="EN-GB">Nine areas of the stock surface were selected for the analyses of the various iconographic and epigraphic features, which were documented and processed in Agisoft PhotoScan. The Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and point cloud models were then processed with different analyses tools in Geographic Information System (GIS) (such as QGIS) and point cloud processing software (CloudCompare). </span></p><p class="VARAbstract"><span lang="EN-GB">Our results document a piece of highly interesting information from its surface consisting of reliefs of four dolphins; at least four rectangular stamps: two of them with possible inscriptions, and an anthropomorphic figure. Thanks to the comparative data, we conclude that the four dolphins were made with the same stamp during the stock manufacturing process. Further, we were able to reconstruct the dolphin stamp, partially preserved in each of the reliefs, by unifying the 3D models, thus revealing the original set. This system of stamping by means of reusable dies is well known in other elements such as amphorae but has not been studied in the specific case of lead traps.</span></p><p class="VARAbstract"><span lang="EN-GB">In the case of the epigraphic elements, the 3D documentation methodology revealed numerous micro-surface details, not visible under conventional documentation techniques, which could help specialists to interpret these inscriptions. Although they have not been analysed in this research, its documentation has promoted the appreciation of surface details that could refer to the manufacturing processes (moulds and tools) or the traces of use, providing historical information on this object. At the same time, the virtual reconstruction of the anchor has aided the formation of hypotheses on the dimensions and original appearance of the anchor. </span></p><p class="VARAbstract"><span lang="EN-GB">The different tools used, such as raster analysis using shadow mapping and point cloud alignment, proved to be very effective. They have fulfilled the established objectives and have helped to establish a possible analysis methodology for future lead traps with decorative elements. These types of artefacts </span><span lang="EN-US">recovered from underwater sites </span><span lang="EN-GB">are very common in museum collections. In many cases, their state of conservation and the difficulty in handling them due to their size and weight make it difficult to document surface details. In this case, the multidisciplinary work of conservation and 3D documentation allows for high-quality documentation that is easy to access and exchange between researchers. The combined use of photogrammetric techniques with virtual RTI provides a non-invasive method for the object, low cost and easy processing compared to other conventional methods.</span></p> Elisa Fernandez-Tudela Luis C. Zambrano Lázaro G. Lagóstena Manuel Bethencourt Copyright (c) 2021 Virtual Archaeology Review 2022-01-21 2022-01-21 13 26 147 162 10.4995/var.2022.15349