Appropriate criteria set for personnel promotion across organizational levels using analytic hierarchy process (AHP)


  • Charles Noven Castillo University of the Philippines Cebu
  • France Kevin Degamo University of the Philippines Cebu
  • Faith Therese Gitgano University of the Philippines Cebu
  • Louie Alfred Loo University of the Philippines Cebu
  • Shaira Mae Pacaanas University of the Philippines Cebu
  • Nika Toroy University of the Philippines Cebu
  • Lanndon Ocampo University of the Philippines Cebu
  • Leahlizbeth Sia University of the Philippines Cebu
  • Christine Omela Ocampo University of San Carlos



Personnel promotion, Criteria, AHP, Organizational levels, Retail industry


Currently, there has been limited established specific set of criteria for personnel promotion to each level of the organization. This study is conducted in order to develop a personnel promotion strategy by identifying specific sets of criteria for each level of the organization. The complexity of identifying the criteria set along with the subjectivity of these criteria require the use of multi-criteria decision-making approach particularly the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). Results show different sets of criteria for each management level which are consistent with several frameworks in literature. These criteria sets would help avoid mismatch of employee skills and competencies and their job, and at the same time eliminate the issues in personnel promotion such as favouritism, glass ceiling, and gender and physical attractiveness preference. This work also shows that personality and traits, job satisfaction and experience and skills are more critical rather than social capital across different organizational levels. The contribution of this work is in identifying relevant criteria in developing a personnel promotion strategy across organizational levels.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Charles Noven Castillo, University of the Philippines Cebu

School of Management

France Kevin Degamo, University of the Philippines Cebu

School of Management

Faith Therese Gitgano, University of the Philippines Cebu

School of Management

Louie Alfred Loo, University of the Philippines Cebu

School of Management

Shaira Mae Pacaanas, University of the Philippines Cebu

School of Management

Nika Toroy, University of the Philippines Cebu

School of Management

Lanndon Ocampo, University of the Philippines Cebu

School of Management

Assistant Professor

Business Management Cluster

Leahlizbeth Sia, University of the Philippines Cebu

School of Management

Assistant Professor

Business Management Cluster

Christine Omela Ocampo, University of San Carlos

Department of Industrial Engineering


Ahrens, J., Landmann, A., Woywoode, M. (2015). Gender preferences in the CEO successions of family firms: Family characteristics and human capital of the successor. Journal of Family Business Strategy, 6(2), 86-103.

Anis, A., Islam, R. (2015). The application of analytic hierarchy process in higher-learning institutions: a literature review. Journal for International Business and Entrepreneurship Development, 8(2), 166-182.

Arasli, H., Tumer, M. (2008). Nepotism, favouritism and cronyism: a study of their effects on job stress and job satisfaction in the banking industry of North Cyprus. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 36(9), 1237-1250.

Baker, D. (2011). Forward and backward, horizontal and vertical: Transformation of occupational credentialing in the schooled society. Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, 29(1), 5-29.

Bali, O., Dagdeviren, M., Gumus, S. (2015). An integrated dynamic intuitionistic fuzzy MADM approach for personnel promotion problem. Kybernetes, 44(10), 1422-1436.

Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Barker, T.J., Zabinsky, Z.B. (2011). A multicriteria decision-making model for reverse logistics using analytical hierarchy process. Omega, 39(5), 558-573.

Bills, D. (2003). Credentials, signals, and screens: Explaining the relationship between schooling and job assignment. Review of Educational Research, 73(4), 441-449.

Bills, D., Brown, D. (2011). New directions in educational credentialism. Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, 29(1), 1-4.

Brown, P., Hesketh, A., Williams, S. (2003). Employability in a knowledge-driven economy. Journal of Education and Work, 16(2), 107-126.

Castello-Branco, D., Rathmann, R., Borba, B.S., de Lucena, A.F. (2012). A multicriteria approach for measuring the carbon-risk of oil companies. Energy Strategy Reviews, 1(2), 122-129.

Chandio, I.A., Matori, A.N.B., WanYusof, K.B., Talpur, M.A.H., Balogun, A.L., Lawal, D.U. (2013). GIS-based analytic hierarchy process as a multicriteria decision analysis instrument: a review. Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 6(8), 3059-3066.

Chowdhury, S., Schulz, E., Milner, M., van De Voort, D. (2014). Core employee based human capital and revenue productivity in small firms: An empirical investigation. Journal of Business Research, 67(11), 2473-2479.

Cohen, D.J. (2015). HR past, present and future: A call for consistent practices and a focus on competencies. Human Resource Management Review, 25(2), 205-215.

Dahl, G. B. (2008). The demand for sons. The Review of Economic Studies, 75(4), 1085-1120.

Delbari, S.A., Ng, S.I., Aziz, Y.A., Ho, J.A. (2016). An investigation of key competitiveness indicators and drivers of full service airlines using Delphi and AHP techniques. Journal of Air Transport Management, 52, 23-34.

Dion, K., Berscheid, E., Walster, E. (1972). What is beautiful is good. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 24(3), 285-290.

Dirks, K.T., Ferrin, D.L. (2002). Trust in leadership: Meta-analytic findings and implications for research and practice. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(4), 611-628.

Dolan, J.G., Isselhardt, B.J., Cappuccio, J.D. (1989). The analytic hierarchy process in medical decision making: A tutorial. Medical Decision Making, 9(1), 40-50.

Dumitrescu, M. (1995). Introduction to management and general management. Eurounion House, Oradea, 205.

Fernandez, R.M., Abraham, M. (2011). Glass ceilings and glass doors? Internal and external hiring in an organizational hierarchy. MIT Sloan Research Paper No. 4895-11.

Fleishman, E.A., Mumford, M.D., Zaccaro, S.J., Levin, K.Y., Korotkin, A.L., Hein, M.B. (1991). Taxonomic efforts in the description of leader behavior: A synthesis and functional interpretation. Leadership Quarterly, 2(4), 245-287.

Garg, C.P. (2016). A robust hybrid decision model for evaluation and selection of the strategic alliance partner in the airline industry. Journal of Air Transport Management, 52, 55-66.

Godinho, P., Costa, J.P., Fialho, J., Afonso, R. (2011). Some issues about the application of the analytic hierarchy process to R&D project selection. Global Business and Economics Review, 13(1), 26–41.

Hackman, J.R. (1976). Motivation through the design of work: Test of theory. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 16(2), 250-279.

Harter, J.K., Schmidt, F.L., Hayes, T.L. (2002). Business-unit-level relationship between employee satisfaction, employee engagement, and business outcomes: a meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(2), 268-279.

Herva, M., Roca, E. (2013). Review of combined approaches and multi-criteria analysis for corporate environmental evaluation. Journal of Cleaner Production, 39, 355-371.

Ho, W. (2008). Integrated analytic hierarchy process and its applications – a literature review. European Journal of Operational Research, 186(1), 211-228.

Humburg, M., van der Velden, R. (2015). Skills and the graduate recruitment process: Evidence from two discrete choice experiments. Economics of Education Review, 49, 24-41.

Ishizaka, A., Labib, A. (2011). Review of the main developments in the analytic hierarchy process. Expert Systems with Applications, 38(11), 14336-14345.

Islam, R., Rasad, S.B.M. (2006). Employee performance evaluation by the AHP: A case study. Asia Pacific Management Review, 11(3), 163-176.

Kim, Y., Canella, A.A. (2008). Social capital among corporate upper echelons and its impacts. Journal of World Business, 43(1), 85-96.

Kwon, I., Meyersson Milgrom, E.M. (2014). The significance of firm and occupation specific human capital for hiring and promotions. Labour Economics, 31, 162-173.

Lu, H., Barriball, K.L., Zhang, X., While, A.E. (2012). Job satisfaction among hospital nurses revisited: A systematic review. InternationalJournal of Nursing Studies, 49(8), 1017-1038.

Maleki, H., Zahir, S. (2013). A Comprehensive Literature Review of the Rank Reversal Phenomenon in the Analytic Hierarchy Process. Journal of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis, 20(3-4), 141-155.

Mittal, K.C., Goel, A.K., Mohindru, P. (2009). Performance evaluation of employees using analytical hierarchical process: A case study of Indian IT industry. Asia-Pacific Journal of Management Research and Innovation, 5(4), 119-127.

Mumford, M.D. (1986). Leadership in the organizational context: Conceptual approach and its application. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 16, 212–226.

Mumford, M.D., Schultz, R.A., Osburn, H.K. (2002). Planning in organizations: Performance as a multi-level phenomenon. In Francis J. Yammarino, Fred Dansereau (ed.) The many faces of multi-level issues (Research in Multi-Level Issues, Volume 1), Emerald Group Publishing Limited, pp. 3-65.

Nichols, A.L., Cottrell, C.A. (2014). What do people desire in their leaders? The role of leadership level on trait desirability. The Leadership Quarterly, 25(4), 711-729.

Ocampo, L. (2015). A hierarchical framework for index computation in sustainable manufacturing. Advanced in Production Engineering and Management, 10(1), 40-50.

Ocampo, L., Clark, E. (2015). An analytic hierarchy process (AHP) approach in the selection of sustainable manufacturing initiatives: a case in a semiconductor manufacturing firm in the Philippines. International Journal of Analytic Hierarchy Process, 7(1), 32-49.

Ocampo, L.A., Clark, E.E., Promentilla, M.A.B. (2016). Computing sustainable manufacturing index with fuzzy analytic hierarchy process. International Journal of Sustainable Engineering, 9(5), 305-314.

Ocampo, L., Vergara, V.G.N., Impas Sr., C.G., Tordillo, J.A.S., Pastoril, J.S. (2015). Identifying critical indicators in sustainable manufacturing using analytic hierarchy process (AHP). Journal of Manufacturing and Industrial Engineering, 14(3-4), 1-8.

Promentilla, M.A.B., Furuichi, T., Ishii, K., Tanikawa, N. (2006). Evaluation of remedial countermeasures using the analytic network process. Waste Management, 26(12), 1410–1421.

Robbins, S.P., Judge, T.A. (2013). Organizational Behavior 15th ed. Prentice Hall: Pearson Education Inc.

Saaty, T. L. (1980). The Analytic Hierarchy Process. McGraw-Hill, New York.

Saaty, T.L., Ramanujam, V. (1983). An objective approach to faculty promotion and tenure by the analytic hierarchy process. Research in Higher Education, 18(3), 311-331.

Schmidt, K., Aumann, I., Hollander, I., Damm, K., von der Schulenburg, J.M.G. (2015). Applying the analytic hierarchy process in healthcare research: A systematic literature review and evaluation of reporting. BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making, 15(112), 1-27.

Sipahi, S., Timor, M. (2010). The analytic hierarchy process and analytic network process: an overview of applications. Management Decision, 48(5), 775-808.

Subramanian, N., Ramanathan, R. (2012). A review of applications of analytic hierarchy process in operations management. International Journal of Production Economics, 138(2), 215-241.

Taylor III, F.A., Ketcham, A.F., Hoffman, D. (2006). Personnel evaluation with AHP. Management Decision, 36(10), 679-685.

Tinkler, J.E., Whittington, K.B., Ku, M.C., Davies, A.R. (2015). Gender and venture capital decision-making: The effects of technical background and social capital on entrepreneurial evaluations. Social Science Research, 51, 1-16.

Umi Narimawati, S.E. (2007). The influence of work satisfaction, organizational commitment and turnover intention towards the performance of lecturers at West Java’s private higher education institution. Journal of Applied Sciences Research, 3(7), 549-557.

Vaidya, O.S., Kumar, S. (2006). Analytic hierarchy process: an overview of applications. European Journal of Operational Research, 169(1), 1-29.

Yuen, K.K.F. (2014). The Primitive Cognitive Network Process in healthcare and medical decision making: Comparisons with the Analytic Hierarchy Process. Applied Soft Computing, 14, 109-119.

Zahedi, F. (1986). The analytic hierarchy process: A survey of the method and its applications. Interfaces, 16(4), 96-108.




How to Cite

Castillo, C. N., Degamo, F. K., Gitgano, F. T., Loo, L. A., Pacaanas, S. M., Toroy, N., Ocampo, L., Sia, L., & Ocampo, C. O. (2017). Appropriate criteria set for personnel promotion across organizational levels using analytic hierarchy process (AHP). International Journal of Production Management and Engineering, 5(1), 11–22.