Assessment of lean practices in small and medium garment manufacturing companies in South-Western Nigeria




lean manufacturing, garment industry, small and medium scale enterprises, gross domestic product


The Nigerian garment industry has significantly contributed to the Gross Domestic Product of the country. However, this multibillion naira, small and medium scale enterprises have a higher potential to generate huge revenue, provided lean manufacturing concepts are adopted. In this study, the awareness level and the adoption of lean concepts were assessed using a survey technique. In the survey, 40 complete responses were received by administering 60 copies of a structured questionnaire based on five-point Likert scale. By analyzing the responses using descriptive statistics and mean item score, it was deduced that teamwork is the most predominant lean concept that is currently been practiced in the South-Western Nigeria garment industry with the highest mean score of 3.63. Just-in-time supply, workforce commitment, daily schedule and product design have witnessed the influence of the implementation of lean practices. In the garment industry, the practice of the few lean concepts resulted in a significant improvement in the quality of the garments produced. However, a lack of understanding on how to implement the lean concepts has been a major barrier in this industry. Hence, comprehensive trainings, seminars and workshops for the key players in the industry are proposed to increase the knowledge and adoption of lean concepts.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Olufemi Sylvester Bamisaye, Air Force Institute of Technology

Mechanical Engineering Department

Olufemi Adebayo Oroye, Bells University of Technology

Department of Management Technology

Peter Kayode Farayibi, Federal University of Technology

Department of Production Engineering

Ayodeji Dennis Adeitan, University of Johannesburg

Postgraduate School of Operations Management

Stephen Agbo, Air Force Institute of Technology

Mechanical Engineering Department


Abioye, T.E., & Bello, E.I. (2012). A review of awareness and implementation of lean manufacturing within Nigerian smallscale manufacturing companies. Journal of Mechanics Engineering and Automation, 2, 374-38.

Achanga, P., Shehab, E., Roy, R., & Nelder, G. (2006). Critical success factors for lean implementation within SMEs. Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, 17(4), 460-471.

Adeitan, A.D., Aigbavboa, C., & Bamisaye, O.S. (2021). Influence of information flow on logistics management in the industry 4.0 era. International Journal of Supply and Operations Management, 8(1), 29-38.

Aigbavboa, C., & Ohiomah, I. (2015). Lean manufacturing adoption and implementation in Nigeria manufacturing industries. In F. Kongoli, T. Havlik, & F. Pagnanelli (Eds.), Sustainable Industrial Processing Summit SIPS 2015 Volume 11: Recycling & Environmental, 385-390.

Akhamiokhor, S.A. (2017). Entrepreneurial strategies and the development of Small and Medium Scale Enterprises (SMES) in Ogun State, Nigeria [Masters of Philosophy (Thesis), Babcock University Ogun State, Nigeria.].

Almanei, M., Salonitis, K., & Xu, Y. (2017). Lean implementation frameworks: The challenges for SMEs. Procedia CIRP, 750-755.

Arif, S., & Ilyas, M. (2011). Leadership, empowerment and customer satisfaction in teaching institutions. The TQM Journal, 23(4), 388-402.

Babalola, D.O., Ibem, E.O., & Ezema, I.C. (2018). Assessment of awareness and adoption of lean practices in the Nigerian building Industry. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology, 9(13), 1626-1640.

Bamisaye, O.S., & Adeitan, A.D. (2018). A review of green supply chain management on waste disposal: a study of Nigerian garment industry. Advances in Research, 17(3), 1-9.

Bernard, H.R. (2002). Research methods in anthropology: Qualitative and quantitative methods. 3rd edition. AltaMira Press, Walnut Creek, California.

Creswell, J.W. (2003). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative and mixed-method approach. California: Sage Publications.

Chong, S. (2007). Business process management for SMEs: An exploratory study of implementation factors for the Australian wine industry. Journal of Information Systems and Small Business, 1(1-2), 41-58.

Eckert, C., Clarkson, J.P., & Stacey, M. (2004). The lure of the measurable in design research, in Design 2004 (ed.), International Design Conference, Dubrovnik, Croatia, May 18-21, 1-6.

Elnamrouty, K. & Abushaaban, M.S. (2013). Seven wastes elimination targeted by lean manufacturing case study "Gaza strip manufacturing firms". International Journal of Economics, Finance and Management Sciences, 1(2), 68-80.

Islam, M.S. (2019). Lean practices in Bangladeshi textile industry: A literature review. [Masters of Technology (Thesis), Faculty of Technology, University of Oulu, Finland.].

Ihua, U.B. (2009). SMEs key failure-factors: A comparison between the United Kingdom and Nigeria. Journal of Social Sciences, 18(3), 199-207.

Kodali, N.V.K.J.R. (2016). An empirical study for implementation of lean principles in Indian manufacturing industry. Benchmarking: An International Journal, 23(1), 1-26.

Mazumder, S. (2015). Lean wastes and its consequences for readymade garments manufacturing. Global Journal of Researches in Engineering, 15(1), 2-7.

Mckinsey Global Institute. (2018). Nigeria's renewal: Delivering inclusive growth in Africa's largest economy.

Melton, T. (2005). The benefits of lean manufacturing: What lean thinking has to offer the process industries. Chemical Engineering Research and Design, 83(6A), 662-673.

Mezgebe, T.T., Asgedom, H.B., & Desta, A. (2013). Economic analysis of lean wastes: case studies of textile and garment industries in Ethiopia. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 3(8), 101-127.

Nash, A.M., Poling, S.R., & Ward, S. (2006). Using Lean for Faster Six Sigma Results a Synchronized Approach. New York: Productivity Press.

National Bureau of Statistics. (2019). Nigerian gross domestic product report.

Nordin, N., Deros, B.M., & Wahab, D.A. (2010). A survey of lean manufacturing implementation in Malaysian automotive industry. International Journal of Innovation, Management and Technology, 1(4), 374-380.

Ogedengbe, T.I., Abioye, T.E., & Apalowo, R.K. (2017). Level of lean practices among large scale manufacturing companies in South-Western Nigeria. Progress in Industrial Ecology - An International Journal, 11(2), 195-203.

Okezie, A.I., Odii, A., & Njoku, A.C. (2013). Challenges and prospects of entrepreneurship in Nigeria. Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, 2(5), 25-36.

Olatunji, J.O. (2008). Lean in Nigerian construction: State, barriers, strategies and "go-to-gemba" approach. Proceedings for the 16th Annual Conference of the International Group for Lean Construction, People, Culture and Change, Manchester, United Kingdom, July 16-18, 287-297.

Oloyede Z.O. (2014). An assessment of factors militating against fabric production in contemporary Nigerian textile industry. Paper Presented at a Workshop Organized by The Entrepreneurial Unit of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife.

Onifade M.K. & Oroye O.A. (2021). Application of lean manufacturing technology in a milk manufacturing company. Jurnal Sistem dan Manajemen Industri, 5(2), 87-97.

Pandey, S. (2015). Awareness of lean in the Indian garment manufacturing industry [Bachelor of Technology (Thesis), Department of Fashion Technology, National Institute of Fashion Technology, Mumbai, India.].

Patnayakuni, N., & Rai, A. (2002). Towards a theoretical framework of digital supply chain integration. Proceedings of European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Gdańsk, June, 2002.

Petersson, P., Johansson, O., Broman, M., Blucher, D., & Alsterman, H. (2010). Lean-Turn deviations into success! Bromma, Sweden: Part Media, Gronviksvagen.

Puvanasvaran, P.A., Megat, H., Sai Hong T., & Mohd Razali M. (2009). The roles of communication process for an effective lean manufacturing implementation. Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management, 2, 128-152.

Ramgoolam, K., & Ramphul, N. (2018). An Assessment of the Lean Deployment in the Mauritian textile industry. Proceedings of the International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management, Paris, France, 2-13.

Rose, A.M.N., Deros, B.M., Rahman, M.N., & Nordin, N. (2011). Lean manufacturing best practices in SMEs. Proceedings of the International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management, Kualar Lumpur, Malaysia, 872-877.

Salaheldin, S.I. (2005). JIT implementation in Egyptian manufacturing firms: Some empirical evidence. International Journal of Operations and Production Management, 25(4), 354-370.

Seidler, J. (1974). On using informants: A technique for collecting quantitative data and controlling measurement error in organization analysis. American Sociological Review, 39, 819-831.

Shah, Z.A., & Hussain, H. (2016). An investigation of lean manufacturing implementation in textile industries of Pakistan. Proceedings of the 2016 International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management Detroit, Michigan, USA, 2-10.

Shah, R., & Ward, P.T. (2003). Lean manufacturing: Context, practice bundles and performance. Journal of Operations Management, 21, 29-149.

Silva, S.K.P.N., Perera, H.S.C., & Samarasinghe, G.D. (2011). Viability of lean manufacturing tools and techniques in the apparel industry in Sri Lanka. Applied Mechanics and Materials, 110, 4013-4022.

Stears Business. (2019). The state of Nigeria's fashion industry.

Womack, J., & Jones, D. (2003). Lean Thinking: Banishing Waste and Create Wealth in Your Corporation. New York: Free Press.

Wong, Y.C., Wong, K.Y., & Ali, A. (2009). A study on lean manufacturing implementation in the Malaysian electrical and electronics industry. European Journal of Scientific Research, 38(4), 521-535.