Scientific rigour of online platforms for 3D visualization of heritage
Keywords:cultural heritage, 3D visualisation, 3D reconstruction, ICOMOS, online platforms, community participation
3D visualisations –including 3D scans and 3D reconstructions–designed as part of larger archaeology, history or cultural heritage projects are commonly shared with the public through online platforms that were not necessarily designed to host heritage representations and often fail to contextualize them. This paper seeks to evaluate whether five online platforms commonly used today to share 3D visualisations of heritage (Google Arts & Culture, CyArk, 3DHOP, Sketchfab and game engines) offer features that facilitate their scientific rigour and community participation, based on guidelines from International Council on Monuments and Sites(ICOMOS)and United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization(UNESCO). The author starts by summarizing recommendations from 32 international guidelines that are relevant to the 3D visualization of heritage, condensing them into nine key criteria: multi-disciplinary teams, objective-driven methodology and tools, careful documentation, type of reconstruction and level of certainty, authenticity, alternative hypotheses, multiple historical periods, respectful use of the heritage, and community engagement. The author proceeds to review the platforms above comparing their features with these nine recommendations and concludes that, while there are currently available features that could help to elevate the scientific rigour of the 3D visualisations and their contextualization to the public, they are not mandatory and are seldom used. The paper finishes with a recommendation for an information package to support3D visualisations of heritage on public online platforms.
Online platforms for the 3D visualization of heritage fail to disclose what type of reconstruction it is and its level of certainty, struggling to balance community engagement vs scientific rigour of their contents.
ICOMOS and UNESCO recommendations regarding heritage are loosely followed on the reviewed platforms, and supporting documentation is often lacking.
Scientific rigour on these platforms could be elevated with supporting textual fields to disclose further information about each visualisation.
DHOP(2018). 3DHOP: 3D Heritage Online Presenter. Retrieved September20,2018 from: http://3DHOP.net/contacts.php
Adams, E.(2010).Fundamentals of Game Design.2nded.Berkeley, USA: New Riders.
Brunetaud, X., De Luca, L., Janvier-Badosa, S., Beck, K.,& Al-Mukhtar ,M.(2012).Application of digital techniques in monument preservation. European Journal of Environmental and Civil Engineering,16(5), 543-556. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/19648189.2012.676365
Caro, J.L., &Hansen, S. (2015).From photogrammetry to the dissemination of archaeological heritage using game engines: Menga case study. Virtual Archaeology Review,6(12), 58-68.doi:https://doi.org/10.4995/var.2015.4159
Denard, Hugh (Ed.) (2009).The London Charter for the Computer-Based Visualisation of Cultural Heritage. London, UK: King’s College London.
Epic Games (2018). Unreal Engine [Computer software].Cary, North Carolina, USA: Epic Games.
Esclapés, J., Tejerina, D., Esquembre, M. A., & Bolufer, J. (2013).Methodological proposal to generate interactive virtual walkthrough. Virtual Archaeology Review, 4(9), 212-222.doi:https://doi.org/10.4995/var.2013.4276
Figueiredo, C. (2014). Escala de Evidência Histórica/Arqueológica. Retrieved December 5, 2017, from http://bit.ly/2CGJey3
Grau, O.,& De Gruyter, W.(2017).Museum and Archive on the Move: Changing Cultural Institutions in the Digital Era(pp. 216-231).Berlin: GmbH & Co KG. Gravitate (2017). https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110529630
Gravitate: Geometric Reconstruction And noVel semantIc reunificaTion of culturAl heriTage objEcts. Retrieved December 3, 2017, fromhttp://gravitate-project.eu
Grosman, L. (2016). Reaching the point of no return: The computational revolution in archaeology. Annual Review of Anthropology, 45, 129-145. doi:https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-anthro-102215-095946
ICOMOS (1964). International Charter for the Conservation and Restoration of Monuments and Sites (The Venice Charter 1964).Second International Congress of Architects and Technicians of Historic Monuments. Retrieved December 3, 2017, from http://bit.ly/1UcG8YG
ICOMOS (1982). The Florence Charter 1981.Florence International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS). Retrieved December 10, 2017, from http://bit.ly/2mfzTXU
ICOMOS (1982a). Declaration of Dresden on the "Reconstruction of Monuments Destroyed by War”. ICOMOS. Retrieved December 17, 2017, from http://bit.ly/2m9gSpa
ICOMOS (1987).Charter for the Conservation of Historic Towns and Urban Areas (Washington Charter 1987). Washington DC International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS). Retrieved December 17, 2017, from http://bit.ly/2EowdtD
ICOMOS (1990). Charter for the Protection and Management of the Archaeological Heritage. Lausanne International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS). Retrieved from http://bit.ly/2CU45lJ
ICOMOS(1994). The Nara Document on Authenticity. Nara International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS). Retrieved December 3, 2017, from http://bit.ly/2CWyzCC
ICOMOS (1996). Charter on the Protection and Management of Underwater Cultural Heritage. Sofia 11th ICOMOS General Assembly. Retrieved December 10, 2017, from http://bit.ly/2AKiKdq
ICOMOS (1996a). Principles for the recording of monuments, groups of buildings and sites. Sofia 11th ICOMOS General Assembly. Retrieved December 10, 2017, from http://bit.ly/2AKiKdq
ICOMOS (1998). Declaration of ICOMOS Marking the 50th Anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. ICOMOS. Retrieved December 17, 2017, from http://bit.ly/2FjyyXY
ICOMOS (1999). International Cultural Tourism Charter: Managing Tourism at Places of Heritage Significance. Mexico 12th ICOMOS General Assembly. Retrieved December 18, 2017, from http://bit.ly/2AKixa8
ICOMOS (1999a).Charter on the Built Vernacular Heritage.Mexico 12th ICOMOS General Assembly. Retrieved 10 December 2017, from http://bit.ly/2CRYdIZ
ICOMOS (1999b). Principles for the Preservation of Historic Timber Structures. Mexico 12th ICOMOS General Assembly. Retrieved 10 December 2017, from http://bit.ly/2AI9TbO
ICOMOS (2003). ICOMOS Charter –Principles for the Analysis, Conversation and Structural Restoration of Architectural Heritage. Victoria Falls 14th ICOMOS General Assembly. Retrieved December 3, 2017, from http://bit.ly/2CWzAdU
ICOMOS (2003a). ICOMOS Principles for the Preservation and Conservation-Restoration of Wall Paintings (2003).Victoria Falls: 14th ICOMOS General Assembly. Retrieved November 18, 2017, from http://bit.ly/2mgYUBU
ICOMOS (2005).Xi’an Declaration on the Conservation of the Setting of Heritage Structures, Sites and Areas. Xi’an 15th ICOMOS General Assembly. Retrieved December 3, 2017, from http://bit.ly/2Dc1sbY
ICOMOS (2008).The ICOMOS Charter on Cultural Routes. Québec 16th ICOMOS General Assembly. Retrieved December 3, 2017, from http://bit.ly/2qGK6Bj
ICOMOS (2008a). The ICOMOS Charter for the Interpretation and Presentation of Cultural Heritage Sites. Québec 16th ICOMOS General Assembly. Retrieved December 3, 2017, from http://bit.ly/2FgoeQv
ICOMOS (2008b). Québec Declaration on the Preservation of the Spirit of Place. Québec 16th ICOMOS General Assembly. Retrieved December 3, 2017, from http://bit.ly/2CGxFa1
ICOMOS (2011). The Paris Declaration on Heritage as a Driver of Development.Paris 17th ICOMOS General Assembly. Retrieved December 10, 2017, from http://bit.ly/2DbZXdQ
ICOMOS (2011a).Joint ICOMOS-TICCIH Principles for the Conversation of Industrial Heritage Sites, Structures, Areas and Landscapes (The Dublin Principles).Paris 17th ICOMOS General Assembly. Retrieved December 10, 2017, from http://bit.ly/2mg9BVg
ICOMOS (2011b).The Valletta Principles for the Safeguarding and Management of Historic Cities, Towns and Urban Areas. Valetta 17th ICOMOS General Assembly. Retrieved December 10, 2017, from http://bit.ly/2AHoR21
ICOMOS (2014).The Delhi Declaration on Heritage and Democracy. New Delhi 19th ICOMOS General Assembly. Retrieved September 20, 2018, from http://bit.ly/2merZxU
ICOMOS (2017).The Florence Declaration on Heritage Landscape as Human Values.Florence18th ICOMOS General Assembly. Retrieved December 3, 2017, from https://bit.ly/2MQB1eO
INSULA V 1 (2018). INSULA V 1: The Swedish Pompeii Project. Retrieved 20 September 2018 from: http://www.pompejiprojektet.se
Kacyra, B.(2009). CyArk 500 -3D Documentation of 500 Important Cultural Heritage Sites. Fritsch, D.(Ed.) Photogrammetric Week ‘09,315–320.
Lima Declaration (2010). Lima Declaration for Disaster Risk Management of Cultural Heritage. Lima International Symposium 2010. Retrieved November 18, 2017, from http://bit.ly/2AHx3PK
Lloyd, J. (2016).Contextualizing 3D Cultural Heritage. Digital Heritage. Progress in Cultural Heritage: Documentation, Preservation, and Protection. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 10058, 859-868. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-48496-9_69
Lužnik, N.,& Klein, M.(2015).Interdisciplinary Workflow for Virtual Archaeology. 2015 Digital Heritage, 177-180. doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/DigitalHeritage.2015.7419481
Manferdini, A.M., Gasperoni, S., Guidi, F.,& Marchesi, M.(2016). Unveiling Damnatio Memoriae. The use of 3D digital technologies for the virtual reconstruction of archaeological finds and artefacts. Virtual Archaeology Review,7(15), 9-17. doi: https://doi.org/10.4995/var.2016.5871
Mccall, J.(2016). Teaching history with digital historical games: an introduction to the field and best practices. Simulation & Gaming, 47(4), 517–542. doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/1046878116646693
Principles of Seville (2011). International Principles of Virtual Archaeology (Principles of Seville 2011). Seville: INNOVA/SEAV. Retrieved from http://bit.ly/2md2NH4
Sabina ,J. Á.R., Valle, D.G., Ruiz, C.P., García, J.M.M.,& Laguna, A.G.(2015).Aerial Photogrammetry by drone in archaeological sites with large structures. Methodological approach and practical application in the medieval castles of Campo de Montiel. Virtual Archaeology Review, 6(13), 5-19. doi: https://doi.org/10.4995/var.2015.4366
Scopigno, R., Callieri, M., Dellepiane, M., Ponchio, F.,& Potenziani, M. (2017).Delivering and using 3D models on the web: are we ready? Virtual Archaeology Review, 8(17), 1-9.doi:https://doi.org/10.4995/var.2017.6405
Schreier, J.(2017). Why Video Games Cost So Much to Make. Kotaku. Retrieved from https://kotaku.com/why-video-games-cost-so-much-to-make-1818508211
The Athens Charter (1931). The Athens Charter for the Restoration of Historic Monuments. First International Congress of Architects and Technicians of Historic Monuments. Retrieved from http://bit.ly/2CWzAdU
The Charter of Krakow (2000). Principles for the Conservation and Restoration of Built Heritage (The Charter of Krakow 2000).International Conference on Conservation "Krakow 2000". Retrieved from http://bit.ly/2mfKbHy
UNESCO (1972).Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage. UNESCO General Conference, Seventeenth session. Retrieved from http://bit.ly/1xBRhFO
UNESCO (2002). Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage: 30th Anniversary (1972-2002). World Heritage Committee, Twenty-sixth session. Retrieved 17 December 2017, from http://bit.ly/2mamwHI
UNESCO (2008). World Heritage Information Kit. UNESCO & World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 17 December 2017, from http://bit.ly/2EnNva2
Unity Technologies (2018). Unity [Computer software]. San Francisco, USA: Unity Technologies.
Wilson-Barnao, C. (2017). How algorithmic cultural recommendation influence the marketing of cultural collections. Consumption Markets & Culture, 20(6), 559-574. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/10253866.2017.1331910
World Heritage Centre (2016).Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention.UNESCO & World Heritage Centre.Retrieved December 17, 2017, from http://bit.ly/2CIdSHs
How to Cite
This journal is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.